Chemistry

Difference Between Zeeman Effect and Stark Effect

Main difference

The main difference between the Zeeman effect and the Stark effect is that the Zeeman effect describes the splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external magnetic field, while the Stark effect describes the splitting and shifting of spectral lines both in the presence of of a strong magnetic field.

Zeeman Effect vs. Stark Effect

The Zeeman effect refers to the breaking of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external magnetic field; on the other hand, the Stark effect can describe both the splitting and shifting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong electric field. The Zeeman effect can be observed by applying a magnetic field, while the Stark effect can be observed in electric fields. The fundamental cause of the Zeeman effect is the interaction of the magnetic moments with the external magnetic field; however, the fundamental cause of the Stark effect is the interaction between the electric moments of the atom and the external electric field.

The Zeeman effect only describes the splitting of spectral lines when these spectra were subjected to a magnetic field; on the other hand, the Stark effect can describe both the splitting and shifting of spectral lines. In the Zeeman effect, three different types of effects were observed which were a Normal effect, an Anomalous effect, and a Diamagnetic effect, but only two types of Stark effects were observed, which were the Linear stark effect and the Quadric stark effect. The Zeeman effect is analogous to the Stark effect in that it splits spectral lines into various components in the electric field, while the Stark effect is found as the electric field analogous to the Zeeman effect.

Comparison chart

Zeeman effect stark effect
Describes the splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external magnetic field. Describes the splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external electric field.
Applied fields
Magnetic field electric field
Impact
Spectrum split only Both the change and the division of the spectrum
Because
It is the result of the interaction between magnetic moments and the external magnetic field of an atom. It is due to the interaction between the electric moment of the atoms and the external electric field.
Types
Three types; Normal effect, abnormal effect and diamagnetic effect Two types; Linear Stark effect and Quadric Stark effect
Direction
It is analogous to the Stark effect. It is found as the electric field corresponding to the Zeeman effect.

What is the Zeeman effect?

The Zeeman effect labels the perforation of the spectral contours in the appearance of a solid static external magnetic field. It was named after Pieter Zeeman. The effect of the magnetic field on atoms is described under this concept. It is equivalent to this effect, since the spectral contours are divided into numerous constituents in the existence of a current field.

The transition between different components has different intensities, while some become entirely forbidden in the dipole approximation. As the area between Zeeman sub-levels is formed by magnetic power, it can be used to mark the magnetic field strong point just like in the sun and other stars or research laboratory plasmas. When the spectrum of different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations is emitted or absorbed during the transition of electrons between the different energy levels of an atom, a spectrum is made.

The emissions during this process lead to the formation of emission spectra, and in the same way the absorption along the way leads to absorption spectra, which is a specific feature of elements. Spectra are composed of the collection of spectral lines that were emitted or absorbed during each emission and absorption. Like when a hydrogen atom is given energy, it absorbs the energy and moves to a higher level.

But at higher energy, this hydrogen atom becomes unstable and by losing the electron it returns to a lower energy level, which gives an emission spectrum, while the first one during the absorption of the electron gives an absorption spectrum . These spectrum contours represent the change in energy between the different energy levels of an atom.

The Zeeman effect can only be observed by applying the magnetic field discovered by its discoverer. Zeeman observed that when these spectral lines are subjected to the external magnetic field, they split. As he studied the spectrum under the magnetic field, it was also found that there were three spectral lines instead of one. Therefore, these splitting properties, as found by the scientist, were later found to be of use in various ways, and the effect was called the Zeeman effect.

There are three types of effects under this concept. These are normal effects, abnormal effects, and diamagnetic effects. In the normal Zeeman effect, it is caused by the interaction of the orbital magnetic moment. The anomalous Zeeman effect, this is caused by contact deflection combined with simple magnetic flashes. The Zeeman diamagnetic consequence is produced by the communication of the electromagnetic moment induced by the field.

Applications

  • Nuclear magnetic resonance
  • Electron spin resonance spectroscopy
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Mossbauer spectroscopy

What is the Stark effect?

The Stark effect is observed when the perforation of spectral contours under the impression of the current field is observed. These spectral lines are the result of radiation from atoms, ions, or molecules. When the spectrum of different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation is emitted or absorbed as electrons transition between the different energy levels of an atom, a spectrum is produced.

The energy emissions during this process lead to the formation of emission spectra, and in the same way the absorption along the way leads to absorption spectra, which is a known specific characteristic of these elements. Spectra are composed of the collection of spectral lines that were emitted or absorbed during each emission and absorption.

The Stark effect in these spectral lines was first observed by Johannes Stark, thus naming the effect after him. It can include both the constant change and the penetration of the spectral contours. The imposed electric fields first polarize the atom and then interact to result in a dipole moment. The fundamental cause of the Stark effect is the interaction between the electric moments of the atom and the external electric field.

The effect has two types, as it is observed, the Stark Linear effect that arises due to a dipole moment that arises when an electric charge is distributed in a non-symmetrical natural way. The other, the quadratic Stark effect, arises when a dipole moment is induced by an external electric field. It is primarily responsible for the strain expansion of spectral contours that are charged particles of plasma.

The Stark effect can be linear or quadratic, in which the quadratic forms are very precise. Since it is detected for both discharge and commitment spectral contours, the absorption lines are occasionally called the inverse Stark effect. In the heterostructure of semiconductors, when a substantial minor group gap is squeezed between the two major substantial group gap cladding, their Stark effect can be enhanced by guaranteed excitants.

The occurrence of this effect is because the electron and the shack from which the exciters creep are placed on the conflicting course by smearing the current field, but somehow persist in that smaller bandgap material, leading just spread out across the field. This result is largely ruled out in modulators, especially eye force transports.

Key differences

  1. The Zeeman effect designates the splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external magnetic field, on the other hand, the Stark effect describes the splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong electric field.
  2. The Zeeman effect can be observed by applying a magnetic field, while the Stark effect can be observed in magnetic fields.
  3. The Zeeman effect is caused by the interaction of magnetic moments with the external magnetic field, while the Stark effect is caused by the interaction between the electric moments of the atom and the external electric field.
  4. The Zeeman effect has three different types of effects, which were a Normal effect, an Anomalous effect, and a Diamagnetic effect, but only two different types of Stark effects were observed; Linear Stark effect and Quadric Stark effect.
  5. The Zeeman effect described the splitting of the spectral lines when the spectral lines were subjected to a magnetic field, on the other hand, the Stark effect can describe the splitting and shifting of both the spectral lines.
  6. The Zeeman effect is analogous to the Stark effect, while the Stark effect is found as the electric field that is analogous to the Zeeman effect.

Final Thought

The Zeeman effect designates the breaking of spectral lines in the presence of a strong external magnetic field, while the Stark effect can describe both the splitting and the shifting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong electric field.

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