Biology

Difference between Wrapped Virus and Non-Wrapped Virus

Main difference

The virus is an infectious agent that is produced or replicated in the living body. We are often confused between viruses and bacteria. The virus is 100 times smaller than a single bacterial cell and is not alive; it only produces production after entering the human or animal cell. Rather, bacteria are microorganisms that are most commonly found in soil and oceans. Mainly, the virus is an infectious agent that is an intercellular parasite, they are a nucleic acid, either RNA or DNA, which is simply attached in a protein layer called a capsid. Some of the viruses have an additional covering, which is the membranous envelope that covers the protein covering (capsid). Due to the presence of this envelope, viruses can be classified into two types; enveloped viruses and non-enveloped viruses. The one with the membranous envelope that covers the outside of the capsid is called an enveloped virus, and the one without this envelope is called a non-enveloped virus. The non-enveloped virus is more virulent compared to the enveloped virus, since it causes the rupture of the cell membrane (lysis), whereas it rarely occurs in the case of enveloped viruses.

Comparative chart

Enveloped virus Unwrapped virus
Outer covering The enveloped virus has the membranous envelope that surrounds the capsid. The non-enveloped virus lacks this covering and has the capsid as the outermost part.
Virulent The enveloped virus rarely performs cell lysis in the host. The non-enveloped virus is more virulent compared to the enveloped virus, causing the cell membrane to rupture (lysis).
Different conditions Enveloped viruses are sensitive to conditions such as drying and heating. The unwrapped virus remains effective even after drying and provides resistance against conditions such as heating and drying.
Transmitted The enveloped virus is transmitted to living cells through secretions and, above all, through blood or organ transplants. The non-enveloped virus is transmitted to living cells through oral or fecal matter.
Example Influenza, hepatitis C and HIV viruses. Feline calcivirus, murine norovirus, and vesicular rash virus.
What is the enveloped virus?

The enveloped virus has the membranous envelope that covers the capsid; the envelope is made up of phospholipids, glycoproteins (proteins linked with sugar chains) or proteins. The outer covering called the capsid is made up of proteins and is present in all types of viruses; the envelope surrounds the capsid in the enveloped viruses. These viruses are less virulent compared to non-enveloped viruses and are also sensitive to conditions such as drying and heating. Generally, the enveloped virus enters the living body through secretions and, above all, through blood or organ transplants. As they are sensitive to various conditions, they did not survive or reproduce when present in the gastrointestinal tract. When the enveloped virus enters the host, they attack with both cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses. The process by which the virus becomes an enveloped virus is called “sprouting.” The envelope or outer covering of the virus comes from the affected cell or the host.

What is an unwrapped virus?

As its name implies, the non-enveloped virus lacks the membranous layer, it has the capsid as the outermost covering. The outermost covering capsid is made up of proteins. This type of virus is more virulent (harmful) since it can lead to cell lysis in which the cell membrane ruptures. They are not vulnerable to various conditions such as enveloped viruses; they have strong resistance to conditions such as heat and dryness. They can retain their affectivity even after drying out and can also survive in the gastrointestinal tract. The non-enveloped virus is transmitted to the living body through oral or fecal matter. They use their outer covering capsid while attaching to the host cell. Seeing its resistance in different conditions,

Wrapped vs. Non-Wrapped Viruses
  • The enveloped virus has the membranous envelope that covers the capsid, while the non-enveloped virus lacks such an envelope and has the capsid as the outermost part.
  • The non-enveloped virus is more virulent compared to the enveloped virus, as it causes the rupture of the cell membrane (lysis), on the other hand, the enveloped virus rarely does.
  • Enveloped viruses are sensitive to conditions such as drying and heating, while non-enveloped viruses remain effective after drying and provide resistance against conditions such as heating and drying.
  • Enveloped virus is transmitted to living cells through secretions, and most notably through blood or organ transplants, while non-enveloped virus is transmitted to living cells through oral or fecal matter.

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