Biology

Difference between Virus and Viroid

Main difference

The virus is an obligate intracellular parasite that can only reproduce by attacking and taking over host cells, as they lack the cellular machinery for reproduction. A viroid is subviral, the smallest agent of infectious disease.

Comparative chart

Virus Viroid
Size 10 nm to 400 nm 2 nm wide, 40-130 nm long
Genome DNA and RNA RNA
Cover Capsid Absent
Hosts Plants, animals Floors
Discoverer Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch To Diener
Etymology Latin word means poison Latin word
Examples Common cold virus, influenza virus, etc. Potato spindle tuber viroid, coconut, cadang cadang viroid.

What is a virus?

A virus is a small non-cellular particle made up of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells. Viruses are non-living, non-cellular structures that have a protein coat called a capsid and nucleic acid nucleus (DNA, RNA). Viruses can only replicate within a host cell. Some viruses are enclosed in a protective envelope. Some viruses have spikes that help host cells attach. Viral subunits are made up of individual protein subunits called capsomeres. The study of viruses is called virology. Beijerinck coined the Latin name virus for poison in 1897. He studied leaked plant juices and discovered that they caused healthy plants to become infectious. Wendell Stanley crystallized the sap of diseased tobacco plants in 1935. He discovered that viruses are made up of nucleic acids and proteins. Edward Jenner developed a smallpox vaccine using milder vaccinia viruses in 1796. Deadly viruses are said to be virulent. Smallpox has been eradicated in the world today. Viruses are smaller than small cells and are measured in nanometers. Viruses could not be seen until the electron microscope was discovered in 20 Viruses are smaller than small cells and are measured in nanometers. Viruses could not be seen until the electron microscope was discovered in 20 Viruses are smaller than small cells and are measured in nanometers. Viruses could not be seen until the electron microscope was discovered in 20thcentury. Outside of host cells, viruses are inactive, lacking ribosomes and enzymes that are necessary for metabolism. Viruses come in a variety of forms. Some are helical in shape, for example the Ebola virus. Some have polyhedral forms like the influenza virus and some have very complex forms like bacteriophages. Viruses that attack bacteria are called bacteriophages. T phages are a particular class of bacteriophages with icosahedral heads, double-stranded DNA, and tails. The most commonly studied T phages are T4 and T7. They infect E-coli, which is an intestinal bacteria. Six small spikes are used at the base of the tail to adhere to host cells. Adsorption, penetration, uncovering, synthesis, assembly and release are modes of replication of the virus. The common cold, chicken pox, influenza, and cold sores are examples of common human illnesses caused by viruses. Many chronic diseases such as AIDS, SARS, avian influenza, and Ebola virus disease are also caused by viruses. The relative ability of the virus to cause disease is designated in terms of virulence. Other diseases are being examined to find out if they have a virus as the causative agent, such as the probable connection between human herpes virus 6 and neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Viruses are important for studying cellular and molecular biology, as they provide simple systems that can be used to investigate and manipulate the functions of cells. Other diseases are being examined to find out if they have a virus as the causative agent, such as the probable connection between human herpes virus 6 and neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Viruses are important for studying cell and molecular biology, as they provide simple systems that can be used to investigate and manipulate cell functions. Other diseases are being examined to find out if they have a virus as the causative agent, such as the probable connection between human herpesvirus 6 and neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome.

What is Viroid?

Viroids are smaller subviral infectious pathogens. They are made up of a short, circular, single-stranded RNA strand without a protein coat. All viroids are present in higher plants and cause diseases in them. Some are present in the nucleolus of the infected host cell, while others are present in chloroplasts. Viroids cause diseases by silencing the RNA. Some diseases are mild, but others cause a lot of financial loss. There are 20 viroids that vary in nucleotide sequence. Viroids resemble prions that are cut from eukaryotic cells. Theodor Otto Diener, a well-known plant pathologist, first discovered the viroid at the United States Department of Agriculture research center in Beltsville, Maryland in 1971. He also characterized the viroid on a molecular basis and named it. That first viroid was a pathogen of potato spindle tuber disease. This viroid is called the potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) today. Viroids are made up of nucleic acid but do not code for any protein. The replication mechanism of viroids uses RNA polymerase II, which is an enzyme of the host cell. The human causative agent, hepatitis D virus, is a viroid-like defective RNA virus. Viroid infections are transmitted by cross contamination after damage to plants as a result of horticultural or agricultural practices. Aphids transmit something, and they can also move from the plant by contact with the leaves. Viroid infections are transmitted by cross contamination after damage to plants as a result of horticultural or agricultural practices. Aphids transmit something, and they can also move from the plant by contact with the leaves. Viroid infections are transmitted by cross contamination after damage to plants as a result of horticultural or agricultural practices. Aphids transmit something, and they can also move from the plant by contact with the leaves.

Virus vs. Viroid

  • The virus is a nucleoprotein particle.
  • A viroid is an infectious RNA particle.
  • The nucleic acid of the virus can be DNA or RNA.
  • Viroid nucleic acid is the only
  • The virus has a protein that covers the genetic material called a capsid.
  • Viroid does not have a protein coat around the RNA.
  • The virus has a greater
  • The viroid has a minor
  • The virus infects all types of cells.
  • Viroid infects only plant cells.

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