Medicine

Difference Between Viroids and Prions

Main difference

The main difference between viroids and prions is that viroids are small plant pathogens that do not code for proteins while prions are infectious particles that do not have nucleic acid.

viroids against prions

Viroids are small, naked, infectious RNA molecules, while prions are protein particles that produce infections that cause degenerative neurological diseases in animals and humans. Viroids are made of small chain circular RNA, while prions are made up of only protein particles. The protein coat is absent in viroids as in all other viruses; on the other hand, RNA or DNA is absent in prions. Viroids are inactivated by digestion with ribonucleases but are resistant to digestion with trypsin and proteinase K; in contrast, prions are inactivated by digestion with trypsin and proteinase K, but are resistant to digestion with ribonucleases.Viroids are smaller than viruses; on the other hand, prions are mostly smaller than viroids. Viroids infect only higher plants (except hepatitis D virus in humans which is similar to viroids); Rather, prions infected humans and animals causing degenerative neurological diseases. Viroid diseases are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease, while prion diseases in humans and animals are scrapie in sheep and goats and mad cow disease in cattle.

Comparison chart

viroids prions
Viroids are covalently closed, single-structured, circular, low-molecular-weight RNA molecules that multiply in plants and cause disease. Prions are small infectious protein particles that do not have nucleic acid, which means they do not replicate, enter humans and cause disease.
Structure
small chain circular RNA Made up of only protein particles
Absence of
protein coat is absent RNA or DNA is absent
inactive by
Ribonuclease digestion Trypsin digestion and proteinase K
resistant to
Trypsin digestion and proteinase K Ribonuclease digestion
Size
Smaller in size than viruses Mostly smaller than viroids
infections
Infects only higher plants (except human hepatitis D virus which is similar to viroids) Infect humans and animals causing degenerative neurological diseases.
Diseases
Chrysanthemum dwarf disease, Potato spindle tuber disease Scrapie disease in sheep and goats, mad cow disease in cattle.

What are viroids?

Viroids are covalently closed, single-structured, circular, low-molecular-weight RNA molecules that multiply in plants and cause disease. Viroids are viruses without the protein coat, which means an incomplete virus. Not having a protein coat means less protection against the immune system. So it will be suicidal for viroids to attack humans or animals. It only affects higher plants (except for the hepatitis D virus in humans which is similar to viroids). Viroids consist of a very short stretch of single-stranded circular RNA without the protein coat. They are a bare strand of RNA. Viroids are smaller than viruses. The smallest viroid discovered so far is 220 nucleotides long. No known protein does not encode the RNA of viroids. Viroid RNA affects a plant’s chemical machinery to produce essential plant proteins. Plant pollen or seeds often transmit viroids. When infected pants rub against an uninfected plant, insects, such as butterflies that feed on different plants, spread the viroids throughout the crop field. The identified species of viroids are approximately 33. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms, and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms, and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms, and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms, and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms, and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms, and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms, and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms, and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars every year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms, and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars every year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. Viroids affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms, and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease. cucumbers, chrysanthemums, avocados, coconut palms and fruit trees. They do not cause disease in humans, but they can cause crop failure, which means a huge loss of farm income and a million dollars each year. Diseases caused by viroids are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease.

What are prions?

Prions are small infectious protein particles that do not have nucleic acid, which means they do not replicate, enter humans and cause disease. Prions transmute proteins, which are undetectable because they are part of the host’s biomechanics. They are the most dangerous of all, capable of killing the host, with no response from the immune system. Prions, short for proteinaceous infectious particles, composed solely of proteins. Prions are not made up of DNA or RNA to transmit infections. Prions are an abnormal form of harmless proteins. Once prions enter the brain through different conditions, they force normal cellular proteins in the brain to start folding into abnormal shapes. This abnormality destroys neurons and eventually it makes the brain full of holes. Prions cause several diseases in humans and animals, including scrapie in sheep, kuru and Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (CJK) in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in elk and deer. All of these known prion diseases affect the structure of the brain or other nervous tissue, and all are fatal and untreatable. Prions cannot be stopped by cooking or sterilization. Prions are resistant to radiation, chemicals, and heat. So, they are almost unstoppable. The best way to stop the spread of prions in animals and humans is to prevent brain tissue from entering the food supply or medical equipment or denature the protein structure. and all are fatal and untreatable. Prions cannot be stopped by cooking or sterilization. Prions are resistant to radiation, chemicals, and heat. So, they are almost unstoppable. The best way to stop the spread of prions in animals and humans is to prevent brain tissue from entering the food supply or medical equipment or denature the protein structure. and all are fatal and untreatable. Prions cannot be stopped by cooking or sterilization. Prions are resistant to radiation, chemicals, and heat. So, they are almost unstoppable. The best way to stop the spread of prions in animals and humans is to prevent brain tissue from entering the food supply or medical equipment or denature the protein structure.

Key differences

  1. Viroids are small, naked, infectious RNA molecules, while prions are protein particles that produce infections that cause degenerative neurological diseases in animals and humans.
  2. Viroids are made of small chain circular RNA, while prions are made up of only protein particles.
  3. In viroids there is no protein coat; on the other hand, RNA or DNA is absent in prions.
  4. Viroids are inactivated by digestion with ribonucleases but are resistant to digestion with trypsin and proteinase K; In contrast, prions are inactivated by digestion with trypsin and proteinase K, but are resistant to digestion with ribonucleases.
  5. Viroids are smaller than viruses; on the other hand, prions are mostly smaller than viroids.
  6. Viroids infect only higher plants (except human hepatitis D virus which is similar to viroids); Conversely, prions infect humans and animals causing degenerative neurological diseases.
  7. Viroid diseases are chrysanthemum stunting, potato spindle tuber disease, while prion diseases in humans and animals are scrapie in sheep and goats and mad cow disease in cattle.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that viroids are small, naked, infectious RNA molecules, while prions are infection-producing protein particles that cause degenerative neurological diseases in animals and humans.

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