There are different types of migration according to factors such as the permanence in the place of destination, the legal situation of the migrant, his age, his intention to leave his territory, among others. We describe each of these types below:
According to your destination
Internal or national migration
They are displacements that occur within the national territory. This type of migration can be driven by economic reasons (seeking better sources of employment in another town or city) or social reasons (fleeing insecurity and finding a calmer destination). For example, migrating from Mexico City to San Miguel de Allende.
External or international migration
When the displacement is outside the country of the migrant. In these cases, a search for a better quality of life is usually imposed in various aspects (better income and quality of life), it has to be diminished in the country of origin, either for political, economic or social reasons. For example, a Mexican leaves his country for Cuba.
According to its duration
When a migrant settles in their place of destination only for a time, and then moves to a different place or returns to their place of origin. The lack of adaptation or finding a destination with better opportunities are usually the main reasons for this type of migration. For example, migrating to Argentina for four years and then going to Spain.
It happens when the migrant settles permanently in a new place. In these cases, the migrant has found the economic, professional or personal stability that she was looking for, or has ultimately managed to adapt and is able to deal with the challenges that migration imposes. For example, a Venezuelan who arrives in Mexico and decides to stay and live there.
According to your character
They are people of economically productive age in a family group, they are the ones who usually travel first, since they assume the responsibility of ensuring the basic needs (source of income, house) so that the rest of the members can arrive. An example is a mother of a family who leaves her country to seek better living conditions for her children.
It is the child population that migrates with their relatives or adult guardians, such as children who leave with their parents.
It is the population over 65 years of age, they are generally people who migrate to reunite with children or grandchildren who migrated first, or because there is an external situation that forces them to move, such as a natural disaster, a political conflict, among others.
Causes of migration
It is driven by political, economic, war or ecological causes. In many cases there is a factor involved.
- Policies: coups, instability in the alternation of power, persecution of political dissidents, among others.
- Economic: hyperinflation, shortage of basic products, exchange controls, high levels of unemployment.
- War: wars between countries, conflicts between internal guerrillas, civil wars, among others.
- Ecological: desertification, extreme temperatures, disappearance of water or food sources, among others.
Consequences of migration
They affect the place of origin as well as the place of destination. Mass migrations, above all, generate new economic, political, social and cultural dynamics for both parties.
- Economic: increase in the workforce in the receiving country and decrease in the workforce in the country of origin.
- Policies: changes in immigration policies, either to make entry and stay requirements more flexible or tough.
- Social: redistribution of the population, increased demand for public services in the receiving country.
- Cultural: cultural exchange expressed in language, music, gastronomy and new mestizaje processes.