Biology

Difference Between Thermophilic Bacteria and Mesophilic Bacteria

Main difference

The main difference between thermophilic bacteria and mesophilic bacteria is that thermophilic bacteria survive and usually live at relatively high temperatures, while mesophilic bacteria survive and live in low and moderate temperatures.

Thermophilic bacteria vs. mesophilic bacteria

Thermophilic bacteria are considered the type of Extremophiles that grow well at comparatively high temperatures. On the other hand, mesophilic bacteria are considered the type of bacteria that thrive perfectly at low and moderate temperatures. The temperature at which thermophilic bacteria thrive is 45-122 ° C; conversely, the moderate temperature at which mesophilic bacteria grow well is 20 to 45 ° C.

50 ° C is known as the optimum temperature for thermophilic bacteria; on the other hand, it is known that 37 ° C is the optimum temperature for mesophilic bacteria. The enzymes that are released by thermophilic bacteria are usually functional at high temperatures; Unlike thermophilic bacteria, mesophilic bacteria do not release enzymes that work at high temperatures; instead, they release enzymes that are only functional at low temperatures.

Thermophilic bacteria generally cannot grow at body temperature, so they are not considered pathogenic; on the other hand, mesophilic bacteria are known as pathogens because they can grow at body temperature. The application of thermophilic bacteria is generally that they form thermostable DNA polymerases, which are then used in PCR; On the other hand, the main application of mesophilic bacteria is that they are used mainly in the formation of yogurt, beer, cheese and wine.

Some examples of thermophilic bacteria are Synechococcus, Thermococcus litoralis, Hermus aquaticus, Calothrix, etc .; on the contrary, some general examples of mesophilic bacteria are Streptococcus pyrogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus auresu, etc.

Comparative chart

Thermophilic bacteria Mesophilic bacteria
An organism that is known as the type of Extremophilic generally lives at high temperatures is called a thermophilic bacterium. An organism that spreads well at that temperature, which is never too hot or too cold, is called a mesophilic bacterium.
Considered as
Regarded as the type of Extremophiles that grow well at comparatively high temperatures. Considered the type of bacteria that thrives perfectly at low and moderate temperatures.
Growth temperature
The temperature at which thermophilic bacteria thrive is 45-122 ° C. The moderate temperature at which mesophilic bacteria grow well is 20 to 45 ° C.
Optimal temperature
50 ° C is known as the optimum temperature 37 ° C is known to be the optimum temperature for mesophilic bacteria.
Enzymes
The enzymes that are released are usually functional at high temperatures. Do not release enzymes that are operational at high temperatures; rather, they release enzymes that are only functional at low temperatures.
Pathogens
They generally cannot grow at body temperature, so they are not considered pathogens. They are known as pathogens because they can grow at body temperature.
Applications / Uses
The application is generally that it forms the thermostable DNA polymerases, which are then used in PCR. The main application is that they are mainly used in the formation of yogurt, beer, cheese and wine.
Examples
Some prominent examples of thermophilic bacteria are Synechococcus, Thermococcus litoralis, Hermus aquaticus, Calothrix, etc. Very general examples of mesophilic bacteria are Streptococcus pyrogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus auresu, etc.
What are thermophilic bacteria?

Bacteria that grow comparatively well at a high temperature, which is almost equal to 45-122 ° C, are known as thermophilic bacteria. The habitat of thermophilic bacteria is usually a variety of oceans, marine habitats, and some terrestrial ones. Some living places for thermophilic bacteria are also the hot springs that are present in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, Yellowstone National Park, and decaying plant material, for example, fertilizing swamps and manure.

Thermophilic bacteria contain many molecular approaches and some biochemicals to overcome the damaging effects of very high temperature. 50 ° C is known as the optimum temperature for thermophilic bacteria. Thermophilic bacteria generally cannot grow at body temperature, so they are not considered pathogens.

The application of thermophilic bacteria is generally that they form the thermostable DNA polymerases, which are then used in PCR. Some examples of thermophilic bacteria are Synechococcus, Thermococcus litoralis, Hermus aquaticus, Calothrix, etc.

What are mesophilic bacteria?

Bacteria that grow well only at moderate temperatures or at a temperature that is neither too cold nor too hot, close to 20-45 ° C, are known as mesophilic bacteria. 37 ° C is known to be the optimal temperature for mesophilic bacteria, which is the optimal body temperature for humans. Mesophilic bacteria are more sensitive to changes that occur in their temperate zones, since they cannot synthesize proteins at very low temperatures.

Mesophilic bacteria are known as pathogens because they can grow at body temperature, so bacteria that are present in the human microbiome and along with that human pathogenic bacteria are known as mesophiles. Mesophilic bacteria do not release enzymes that are operative at high temperatures; instead, they release enzymes that are only functional at low temperatures.

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The most important application of mesophilic bacteria is that they are mainly used in the formation of yogurt, in the fermentation of beer, wine, cheese and, moreover, they are also habitats of mesophilic bacteria. Some general examples of mesophilic bacteria are Streptococcus pyrogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus auresu, etc.

Key differences

  1. The main type of extremophiles that thrive and grow well at relatively high temperatures are known as thermophilic bacteria; on the contrary, it is known as a type of bacteria that thrives and grows well at almost moderate and low temperatures that is known as the mesophilic bacteria.
  2. The optimum temperature for the growth of thermophilic bacteria is considered 50 ° C; On the flip side of thermophilic bacteria, the optimal temperature for the development of mesophilic bacteria is approximately 37 ° C, which is the optimal body temperature for humans.
  3. 45-122 ° C is considered to be the growth temperature of the thermophilic bacteria in which they thrive; At the same time, the growth temperature of mesophilic bacteria is considered to be 20-45 ° C at which they grow well and is known as the moderate temperature for their growth.
  4. Thermophilic bacteria consist of specific enzymes that only become functional at high temperatures; on the other hand, mesophilic bacteria do not release any of these enzymes that are functional at high temperature, while they only release enzymes that function at moderate temperature.
  5. The formation of thermostable DNA polymerases that are useful in the PCR process is the main application of thermophilic bacteria, in contrast to that, the formation of yogurt, cheese, wine and beer is the main application of mesophilic bacteria.
  6. Thermophilic bacteria are not considered pathogenic because they cannot grow at the body temperature of humans. In contrast, mesophilic bacteria are considered pathogenic because they can grow at the body temperature of humans.
  7. Some examples of thermophilic bacteria are Synechococcus, Thermococcus litoralis , Hermus aquaticus , Calothrix; on the contrary, some general examples of mesophilic bacteria are Streptococcus pyrogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus auresu , etc.
Final Thought

The previous discussion concludes that thermophilic bacteria need high temperatures for their survival; on the contrary, mesophilic bacteria require a moderate temperature for their growth.

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