Biology

Difference between somatic cells and gametes

Main difference

In multicellular organisms there are two types of cells mainly, somatic and sexual cells, or gametes. Somatic cells are diploid cells found in all parts of the body, these cells are not involved in any kind of sexual reproduction, while gametes are haploid cells, which give rise to the diploid zygote after fusing during sexual reproduction. The human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes, while the human gamete has 46 chromosomes. Mitosis takes place to form somatic cells, while meiosis takes place during the production of gametes.

Comparative chart

Somatic cells Gametes
Genetically Somatic cells are diploid. Gametes are haploid cells.
Role in sexual reproduction Somatic cells do not play an active role in sexual reproduction. Male and female gametes fuse to form a diploid zygote.
Occurrence in the body Somatic cells are a regular type of body cell found almost everywhere in the body. Gametes are present in certain parts of the body.
Body The human gamete contains only 23 chromosomes. The human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes.

What are somatic cells?

The cells of the body, except for germ cells (sex cells), are known as somatic cells. The word “somatic” is derived from the Greek word “soma,” which means body. Somatic cells are formed through the process of mitosis. A human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes, which are joined in a set of 23 pairs, each chromosome from the mother and another from the paternal combination to form each set of somatic cells. Stem cells are cells that differentiate to form various types of somatic cells. According to reliable studies, there are about 220 types of somatic cells, which make up the human body. Since somatic cells are produced by mitosis, the number of chromosomes in each set is identical to that of the stem cell.

What are gametes?

Gametes are often called sex cells or reproductive cells that combine during sexual reproduction to form a new cell called a zygote. Male gametes are sperm, while female gametes are called ovules (eggs), they combine in the fertilization process to produce offspring. The process of gamete formation is known as gametogenesis, human gametes carry unpaired chromosomes that are 23 in number. The meiosis process works to form gametes. Meiosis produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes of the stem cell and contains half the genetic material of the stem cell.

Somatic cells versus gametes

  • Somatic cells are diploid, while gametes are haploid cells.
  • Somatic cells do not play an active role in sexual reproduction, while male and female gametes fuse to form a diploid zygote.
  • Somatic cells are a regular type of body cells found in almost every part of the body, on the other hand, gametes are present in certain parts of the body.
  • Stem cells are cells that differentiate to form various types of somatic cells, while germ cells give rise to gametes.
  • The human gamete contains only 23 chromosomes, while a human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes.

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