Chemistry

Difference between Sigma Bond and Pi Bond

Main difference

When two atoms interact with each other, they form a chemical bond between them by which they are held together. So, in the field of chemistry, something that is used to join or anchor things together is called a chemical bond. Chemical bonds are classified into a few types, which are: ionic bond, covalent bond, polar bond, and hydrogen bond. Here, we are going to discuss sigma bond and pi bond, which are the types of covalent bond. Sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of chemical bond (covalent bond) that is formed by head overlap between the orbits of the atom, while pi bonds (π bonds) are the weakest type of bond. chemical (covalent bond) as compared to sigma bonds (σ bonds).

Comparison chart

sigma link Pi Bond
type of covalent bond The sigma bond (σ bond) is the strongest type of covalent bond formed between two atoms. The pi bond (π bond) is a weaker type of covalent bond compared to sigma bonds (σ bonds).
Training The sigma bond (σ bond) forms when the heads of the atomic orbitals overlap each other along the internuclear axis of the atoms. The Pi bond (π bond) is formed by overlapping atomic orbitals.
shape and length of the molecule The sigma bond (σ bond) decides the shape of the molecule. The pi bond (π bond) decides the length of the molecule.
Rotation around the internuclear axis The sigma bond (σ bond) can rotate about the internuclear axis. The pi bond (π bond) cannot rotate around an internuclear.
single and double bond In the case of sigma bond (σ bond), a single bond contains only one sigma bond (σ bonds), then multiple bonds like double bond and triple bond also contain only one sigma bond (σ bonds). In the case of the pi bond (π bond), a single bond contains only one pi bond (π bond), while multiple bonds such as the double bond have two pi bonds (π bonds) and the triple bond has three pi bonds ( π bonds).
What is Sigma Bond?

The sigma bond is also written as a σ bond because the symbol σ is a Greek letter used for sigma. Sigma bonds (σ bonds) are a type of atom covalent bond. It is the strongest type of covalent bond formed between two atoms. It forms when the heads of atomic orbitals overlap each other along the internuclear axis of atoms. The relativity of the formed compound is inversely proportional to some sigma bonds (σ bonds), while the stability of the compound is directly proportional to the number of sigma bonds (σ bonds). This bond decides the shape of the molecule, the overlap in the internuclear axis allows the molecule to rotate around its axis, giving it rotational symmetry. Sigma bonds (σ bonds) can be formed by either an orbit or a p orbit. The interesting thing is that a single bond contains only one sigma bond (σ bonds), while multiple bonds like double bond and triple bond also contain only one sigma bond (σ bonds). Examples of sigma bonds (σ bonds) are ammonia (NH3) and benzene ring, etc.

What is Pi Bond?

A Pi bond is also written as a π bond because the symbol π is the Greek letter used for pi. Pi bonds (π bonds) belong to a type of covalent bond in an atom. It is a weaker type of covalent bond compared to sigma bonds (σ bonds). Pi Bond are formed by overlapping atomic orbitals laterally. After that, there is a partial overlap due to which the pi bond (π bond) becomes weaker compared to the other bonds. The relativity of the formed compound is directly proportional to some pi bonds (π bonds) while the stability of the compound is inversely proportional to the number of pi bonds (π bonds). This shortest bond decides the length of the molecule. The orbital overlap is perpendicular to the internuclear axis of the atom which does not allow any rotation in the atom, which means that this bond has non-rotational symmetry. The Pi bond (π bond) is formed by only the p orbital. The interesting thing is that a single bond contains only one pi bond (π bond), while multiple bonds like the double bond have two pi bonds (π bonds) and the triple bond has three pi bonds (π bonds). Examples of pi bonds (π bond) are dicarbonate (C2) and diborane (B2H2). while multiple bonds like double bond have two pi bonds (π bonds) and triple bond has three pi bonds (π bonds). Examples of pi bonds (π bond) are dicarbonate (C2) and diborane (B2H2). while multiple bonds like double bond have two pi bonds (π bonds) and triple bond has three pi bonds (π bonds). Examples of pi bonds (π bond) are dicarbonate (C2) and diborane (B2H2).

Sigma Bond vs. Pi Bond
  • The sigma bond (σ bond) is the strongest type of covalent bond formed between two atoms, while the pi bond (π bond) is a weaker type of covalent bond compared to the sigma bonds (σ bonds).
  • The sigma bond (σ bond) is formed when the heads of the atomic orbitals overlap each other along the internuclear axis of the atoms, while the Pi bond (π bond) is formed by the overlapping of atomic orbitals.
  • The sigma bond (σ bond) decides the shape of the molecule, while the pi bond (π bond) decides the length of the molecule.
  • The sigma bond (σ bond) can rotate around the internuclear axis, while the pi bond (π bond) cannot rotate around an internuclear.
  • In the sigma bond (σ bond), the relativity of the formed compound is inversely proportional to some sigma bonds (σ bonds), while the stability of the compound is directly proportional to the number of sigma bonds (σ bonds). Although contrary to this in a pi bond (π bond), the relativity of the formed compound is directly proportional to some pi bonds (π bonds) while the stability of the compound is inversely proportional to the number of pi bonds (π bonds).
  • In the case of sigma bond (σ bond), a single bond contains only one sigma bond (σ bonds), then multiple bonds like double bond and triple bond also contain only one sigma bond (σ bonds). On the other hand, in the case of the pi bond (π bond), a single bond contains only one pi bond (π bond), while multiple bonds like the double bond have two pi bonds (π bonds) and the triple bond has three pi bonds (π bonds).

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button