Difference Between Ribose and Deoxyribose

Both ribose and deoxyribose are sugars and an essential component to provide the energy that our body needs for the functioning of different organs, such as the brain and muscles in general. Despite fulfilling this general function, these types of sugars differ in terms of their molecular structure, which is why they make up key elements for the different nucleic acids.

That is why, in this article, we present the definitions of ribose and deoxyribose to later point out the differences that arise from them.

Ribose

Ribose is a polyalcohol (organic elements that have different alcohol groups), monosaccharide (simple sugar that does not break down into a simpler one) and aldopentose (has five carbon atoms and an aldehyde functional group) that constitutes one of the main components of ribonucleic acid (RNA) as well as other nucleotide and non-nucleotide elements such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Ribose has five carbon molecules, 10 hydrogen molecules, and five oxygen molecules and is represented by the formula5 H 10 O 5 . It has a density of 0.80 g cm 3 and a molecular mass of 50.13 g/mol. The sugar (ribose) binds to a phosphate as well as one of four bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil, and provides the genetic code for creating the amino acids that make up the building blocks of proteins.

On the other hand, ribose, being present in RNA, is part of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and is naturally present in food, but only in very small quantities. Its primary dietary source is red meat and it is synthesized in all the cells of the body, although slowly and to different degrees depending on the tissue.

deoxyribose

Deoxyribose is a monosaccharide and aldose (its molecule contains an aldehyde group), crystalline and colorless solid, soluble in water that is part of the nucleotides that make up the chains of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Deoxyribose is derived from ribose by the loss of an oxygen atom. Next, deoxyribose lacks an oxygen molecule compared to ribose and is represented by the formula5 H 10 O 4 .

In the same vein, the lack of the extra oxygen molecule means that it doesn’t have an alcohol bond with one of the carbon molecules. The sugar (deoxyribose) binds to a phosphate and to one of four bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine and is responsible for transmitting the hereditary characteristics of individuals from one generation to another and is also responsible for promoting the synthesis of certain proteins specific.

On the other hand, deoxyribose is found naturally in food, more specifically in beef, and is gradually synthesized in the body’s cells.

As you can see, although ribose and deoxyribose are sugars, they differ from each other. These differences can be summarized in the following table:

Ribose deoxyribose
Ribose is one of the main components of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Deoxyribose is one of the main components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
is represented by the formula C5H10O5 is represented by the formula C5H10O4
It is an aldopentose (it has five carbon atoms and an aldehyde functional group). It is an aldose (its molecule contains an aldehyde group)

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