They are specialized nerve endings found in sensory organs (such as the tongue, nose, skin, ears, and eyes). Its function is to be in charge of receiving the stimulus to carry the information and obtain an internal or external response.
The impulse generated by the receptors is transported to the central nervous system and is processed in different areas of the cerebral cortex, in order to provide the individual with the necessary information about the conditions that surround him and generate an appropriate response.
Sensory receptors are nerve cells specialized in converting physicochemical signals to electrical signals that our body can process. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the receptors we have:
- Excitability: Ability to react to nervous stimuli.
- Specificity: Each receptor responds more efficiently to a certain type of stimulus.
- Adaptation: The persistence of a stimulus causes the receptor to decrease the nervous reaction.
- Encoding: If the stimulus is more intense, the receiver sends a greater number of nerve impulses.
They are in charge of executing the response elaborated by the nervous centers before a stimulus. The response can be secretory or motor. They are nerve cells responsible for executing responses to received stimuli.
For molecular biology, an effector is a molecule that acts directly on a second one, modifying its behavior, either by activation (known as agonist) or by repression (known as antagonist or inhibitor).
The effectors are mainly the glands and muscles, and correspond to the types of effector actions: glandular secretion and muscle contraction.
Difference Between Receptor and Effector
- The receptors are those specialized nerve endings found in the sensory organs, they are responsible for receiving the stimulus, carrying the information and obtaining a response.
- The effectors are the nerve cells responsible for executing the responses to the stimuli received.