Chemistry

Difference Between Purines and Pyrimidines

Main difference

Both purines and pyrimidines are organic compounds that are involved in the synthesis of RNA and DNA within the body. Both are nitrogenous bases with different types of use, as they are responsible for producing different types of nucleotides. Apart from this, it is involved in the regulation of body enzymes, starch and protein production. They also function as a pathway in cell communication and signaling. Both are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, the basic difference between them is the arrangement of carbon atoms with nitrogen. The one with two carbon-nitrogen rings is known as purine, while the one with a single carbon-nitrogen ring base is called pyrimidine.

Comparison chart

purines Pyrimidines
About Purines are heterocyclic organic compounds that have pyrimidine rings. The two bases of the carbon-nitrogen ring. Pyrimidines are also the heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds having simple carbon-nitrogen ring bases.
Bases Adenine and Guanine cytosine, thymine and uracil.
chemical structure Two carbon-nitrogen rings are attached to four nitrogen atoms. A carbon-nitrogen ring is bonded with two nitrogen atoms.
Function Its basic function is the production of DNA and RNA, starch and also some proteins. They participate in the process of cell signaling and regulation of enzymes. Pyrimidines have the same functions as purines and are also important for DNA and RNA synthesis. Along with it, they also help in the production of protein and starch.
Type Heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds Heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds
molar mass 120.11g mol-1 80.088g mol-1
Molecular formula C5H4N4 C4H4N2

What are purines?

Purines are organic compounds quite familiar to biology and genetics students and professionals, as they are one of the most important components in the production of RNA and DNA. Purines possess a specific type of nucleotide bases such as guanine and adenine. Purines themselves are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds. The structure of the compounds also defines their functioning. In purines, two carbon-nitrogen rings are attached to four nitrogen atoms. When it comes to food, purines are found in a large amount of meat and all meat products. Purines are rarely present in vegetables and plants. Although there are some specific types of plant-based proteins with a good amount of purines, Most vegetables and plants are low in purines. Within the human body, purines are found primarily in the liver and kidneys. They perform their specific type of functions residing next to the liver and kidneys. Any type of diet that contains a lot of protein contains purines. Purines are naturally nitrogenous bases that help in the production of RNA and DNA. Apart from this, they are also responsible for the production of starch and even the production of protein within the body. In addition, purines participate in cell signaling phenomena. They also continue to regulate the functionality of enzymes within the body. purines participate in cell signaling phenomena. They also continue to regulate the functionality of enzymes within the body. purines participate in cell signaling phenomena. They also continue to regulate the functionality of enzymes within the body.

What are pyrimidines?

Pyrimidines are also the same type of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that are involved in the formation and production of DNA and RNA within the body of an organism. Pyrimidines differ from purines in their structure and the nucleotide bases they involve. Unlike purines, pyrimidines have a single carbon-nitrogen ring that is bonded to the two nitrogen atoms. The three types of nucleotide bases that are derivatives of pyrimidines include uracil, thymine, and cytosine. Pyrimidines are widely found and exist in nature. They are present in more excess compared to the presence of purines in nature. Pyrimidines, in addition to playing a vital role in the production of RNA and DNA, are also involved in the synthesis of starch and protein.

Purines vs. Pyrimidines

  • Purines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that have two carbon-nitrogen rings bonded with four nitrogen atoms.
  • Pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that have a single carbon-nitrogen ring bonded with two nitrogen atoms.
  • Both are used for the production of DNA and RNA.
  • Adenine and guanine are the bases present in purines.
  • Uracil, thymine, and cytosine are the bases present in pyrimidines.
  • Both are used to synthesize protein and starch in the body.
  • Both compounds participate in cell signaling phenomena.
  • Purines and pyrimidines are also responsible for enzyme regulation.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button