Difference Between Propane and Propene

Main difference

The main difference between propane and propene is that propane is a saturated hydrocarbon with single bonds only while propene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon with one double bond in addition to single bonds.

Propane vs Propene

Propane is an organic compound with a chemical formula C3H8, while propene is an organic compound with a chemical formula C3H6. In propane, all three carbons have a single bond between each of them. In contrast, in propene, the first two carbons have a double bond, while there is a single bond between the second and third carbons.

Propane has a total of eight hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms, while propene has six hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms, two fewer atoms than the propane molecule. The boiling point of propane is -42 degrees Celsius, while the boiling point of propene is -47.6 degrees Celsius.

Propane is an alkane while propene is an alkene. Propane is a saturated compound. On the other hand, propene is an unsaturated compound that has enough space to accommodate double and triple bonds. Propane has ten single bonds, while propene has one double bond and seven single bonds.

The hydrocarbon has three carbon atoms, eight hydrogen atoms, and the single bonds between carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen atoms are called propane. In contrast, the hydrocarbon that has three carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, the double bond between the first and second carbons, and the single bonds between the carbon and hydrogen atoms is called propene.

Propane does not give a brominated water test and the solution remains brown, showing the saturated character of propane. On the other hand, propene gives a bromine water test and the solution turns colorless, which represents the unsaturated character of propene.

Comparison chart

Propane propene
An organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8 is called propane. An organic compound with the chemical formula C3H6 is called propene.
Character
Saturated unsaturated
Category
alkane alkene
No. of hydrogen atoms
Eight Six
molar mass
44.10g/mol 42.081g/mol
Boiling point
-42 degrees centigrade -47.6 degrees centigrade
No. of Single Bonds
Ten Seven
No. of double bonds
Zero One
No. of Sigma Links
Ten Seven
No. of Pi Bonds
Zero One
Odor
Lavatory oil smell
Member no.
3rd member of the alkane class 2nd member of the alkene class
Obtained from
natural gas and oil oil cracking
Use
As fuel In organic synthesis
bromine water test
Negative Positive
Effect on solution
The color of the solution remains the same (brown) The color of the solution becomes colorless
What is propane?

Propane is a colorless, odorless gas from the alkane family. It is created over long periods by decomposition reactions of organic matter. Propane is made up of three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms bonded together through the formation of sigma bonds.

Propane is a natural gas, which is created along with a variety of hydrocarbons, including crude oil, butane, and gasoline, etc., by decomposing the remains of small marine animals and plants. Propane is a gas at normal temperature and pressure, but it can liquefy under specific conditions. Propane vapors are heavier and more dense compared to air.

Propane is nicknamed portable gas, which means it is easier to use, store, and transport compared to natural gas. Propane cannot be synthesized in less time. It takes a long time to be produced by organic decay.

The specific gravity of liquid propane is 0.51 compared to water. Therefore, propane is less dense than water. Propane is not polar. Therefore, propane is soluble only in non-polar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, benzene, and ether, etc. and insoluble in polar solvents.

Propane is less reactive compared to propane. Propane does not react with strong acids, bases, oxidizers or reducers. Propane reacts with halogens and produces halogenation reactions in the presence of sunlight.

Propane Uses

  • Space heating and water
  • Cooking
  • Fuel for engine applications such as buses and forklifts
  • Crop drying, weed control, feeding equipment
  • Irrigation pumps, cereal dryers
  • Generators, metal cutting and heat processing
What is propene?

Propene is described as a colorless gas, which has a pale petroleum odor. Propene consists of a single double bond between the first pair of carbon atoms. Propene carries one double bond and seven single bonds between its atoms.

Propene is nonpolar in nature. Therefore, it is soluble in non-polar solvents such as benzene. Propene is insoluble in polar substances such as water. The boiling point of propene is -47.6 degrees Celsius, which is close enough to the boiling point of propane.

Propene is weakly polar, just like propane, but it is a bit more reactive compared to propane due to the presence of a weak pi bond in it. The pi pools present in propene can be easily removed and added, which increases the reaction rate of propene. Therefore, the dipole moment of propene is larger compared to propane.

Due to the unsaturated character of propene, it can form polymeric compounds. The double bond can perform the addition polymerization process by opening the double bond. The polymer obtained by addition polymerization of propene is polypropylene or polypropylene. One of the most important reactions of propene is combustion, which can be complete or incomplete.

uses of propene

  • In the formation of films and fibers.
  • In the manufacture of containers and packaging
  • In the manufacture of caps and closures
  • In the production of chemicals such as propylene oxide, acrylonitrile, cumene, butyraldehyde, acrylic acid, etc.
Key differences
  1. Propane is a saturated hydrocarbon made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms, while propene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
  2. Propane comprises three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms, while propene consists of three carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms.
  3. The chemical formula of propane is C3H8, while the chemical formula of propene is C3H6.
  4. There is no double bond in propane while there is a double bond present between the first and second carbon atoms in propene.
  5. There are ten single bonds in propane, eight between carbon and hydrogen atoms and two between carbon atoms. In contrast, there are seven single bonds, six between carbon and hydrogen atoms and one between carbon atoms.
  6. There is no pi bond in propane. In contrast, a pi bond is also present in propene in addition to the sigma bonds.
  7. The molar mass of propane is 44.10 g/mol, while the molar mass of propene is 42.081 g/mol.
  8. The boiling point of propane is -42 degrees Celsius. In contrast, the boiling point of propene is -47.6 degrees Celsius.
  9. The melting point of propane is -187.7 degrees Celsius, while the melting point of propene is -185.2 degrees Celsius.
  10. Propane is less reactive due to the presence of strong sigma bonds. On the other hand, propene is more reactive due to the presence of weak pi bonds.
  11. Propane has less dipole moment while propene has more dipole moment.
  12. Propane is obtained from natural gas and oil. On the other hand, propene is obtained by cracking oil.
  13. Propane is mainly used as a fuel, while propene is used in organic synthesis.

Final Thoughts

We conclude that propane is an alkane, while propene is an alkene.

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