Biology

Difference between prokaryotic DNA replication and eukaryotic DNA replication

Main difference

Replication means the action of reproducing or copying something. In terms of biology, we use the word replication in the reproduction or copy of DNA in the cell to produce its identical copies. There are two types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Prokaryotes are those cells that do not have a defined nucleus, while eukaryotes are cells that have a defined nucleus within the cell. Both cells show DNA replication, but differ from each other. One of the main differences between prokaryotic DNA replication and eukaryotic DNA replication is that prokaryotic replication occurs within the cytoplasm of the cell, while eukaryotic DNA replication occurs within the nucleus. Some of their steps also differ from each other. . Furthermore, prokaryotic DNA replication has only one origin, whereas eukaryotic DNA replication has numerous origins. Replication in prokaryotes is faster than in eukaryotes. Prokaryotes can take 40 minutes, while eukaryotes can last up to 400 hours.

Comparative chart

Prokaryotic DNA replication Eukaryotic DNA replication
Source Prokaryotic DNA replication has only one origin. Eukaryotic DNA replication has multiple origins.
Time taken Prokaryotic DNA replication takes 40 minutes. Eukaryotic DNA replication can take up to 400 hours or more.
Takes place in Prokaryotic DNA replication occurs in the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic DNA replication occurs in the nucleus.
Base pair rate Prokaryotic DNA replication has an addition rate of 2000 base pairs per second. Eukaryotic DNA replication has a rate of 100 base pairs per second.
Nucleotide Prokaryotic DNA replication has Okazaki fragments 1000-2000 nucleotides long. Eukaryotic DNA replication has Okazaki fragments 100-200 nucleotides in length.
What is prokaryotic DNA replication?

Prokaryotic DNA replication is the process by which the prokaryotic cell’s DNA reproduces. It occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell because the cell does not have a defined nucleus. The origin of prokaryotic DNA replication is unique. In prokaryotic DNA replication, replication occurs at one point. Prokaryotic DNA replication has only one origin. The origin of replication is made up of 150-200 nucleotides. The prokaryotic chromosome has only one replication and a replication bubble forms during the replication of prokaryotic DNA. In this length of Okazaki fragments there are 1000-2000 nucleotides. Replication is very fast and fast, approximately 2000 base pairs per second. DNA polymerase 3 also carries out initiation and elongation.

What is eukaryotic DNA replication?

Eukaryotic DNA replication is the process by which the DNA of the eukaryotic cell reproduces. It occurs within the nucleus of the cell because the cell has a defined nucleus in it. The origin of eukaryotic DNA replication is multiple. In eukaryotic DNA replication, replication occurs at many points. The origin of replication is made up of 150 nucleotides. Many replication forks are formed on each replicating DNA. Eukaryotic DNA has a large number of replications (50,000 or more), but it is not sudden. Okazaki fragments are short (100-200) nucleotides in length. Replication in eukaryotes is slower than in prokaryotes; it’s 100 base pairs per second. DNA polymerase α initiates the replication process, while elongation is carried out by DNA polymerase δ and ε.

Prokaryotic DNA replication vs. eukaryotic DNA replication
  • Prokaryotic DNA replication has a single origin, while eukaryotic DNA replication has multiple origins.
  • Prokaryotic DNA replication is faster than eukaryotic DNA replication. Prokaryotic DNA replication takes 40 minutes, while eukaryotic DNA replication can take up to 400 hours or more.
  • Prokaryotic DNA replication occurs in the cytoplasm, while eukaryotic DNA replication occurs in the nucleus.
  • Prokaryotic DNA replication enzymes are different from eukaryotic ones.
  • Prokaryotic DNA replication has an addition rate of 2000 base pairs per second, while eukaryotic DNA replication has a rate of 100 base pairs per second.
  • Prokaryotic DNA replication has Okazaki fragments 1000-2000 nucleotides long, on the other hand, eukaryotic DNA replication has Okazaki fragments 100-200 nucleotides long.

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