Difference between Point Mutation and Frameshift Mutation

Main difference

The main difference between the point mutation and the Frameshift mutation is that the point mutation is changed at the position of a single nucleotide in the frame of the gene, whereas the Frameshift mutation is the position change of more than one nucleotide that causes the change. under the gene.

Point mutation vs. frame shift mutation

The point mutation is the small change in the structure of the gene due to the arrangement of a single nucleotide; on the other hand, frame shift mutation is the change in the frame of the gene due to the arrangement of more than one nucleotide. The point mutation only needs one nucleotide; on the other hand, the frame shift mutation requires more than one nucleotide. The point mutation does not cause the frame shift in the gene; on the opposite side, the frame shift mutation causes the gene frame change.

The point mutation occurs mainly by the process of substitution with other nucleotides; On the other side of the coin, frame shift mutation occurs by the process of inserting other nucleotides or deletion of nucleotides from the gene. There is a change in the structure of the gene as a result of the point mutation; on the other hand, there is a change in the nucleotide number of the gene as a result of the frame shift mutation. The point mutation results in diseases such as sickle cell anemia; on the other hand, the frame shift mutation results in the appearance of diseases such as Tay-Sachs.

The point mutation has fewer side effects, but the frame shift mutation has more detrimental effects in comparison. The point mutation mainly affects a single amino acid, while the frame shift mutation mainly affects all related amino acids. The point mutation causes the change in the length of the DNA molecule; on the other hand, the frame shift mutation does not cause the difference in the length of the molecule.

Comparative chart
Point mutation Mutation with reading frame shift
The point mutation changes at the position of a single nucleotide in the frame of the gene. A frame shift mutation is a change in the position of more than one nucleotide that causes the gene frame shift.
Number of base pairs
It causes only a nucleotide alteration. It causes more than one nucleotide alteration.
It occurs due to
Point mutation occurs due to the substitution process. Frame shift mutation occurs due to the insertion or deletion process.
Influence
It can be a nonsensical, silent, or nonsensical mutation. It may be a mutation that can toggle the open frame of the protein.
Meaning
The point mutation causes an alteration in the structure of the gene. The frame shift mutation causes an alteration in the number of nucleotides.
Diseases
The point mutation causes diseases such as sickle cell anemia. The frame shift mutation causes diseases like Tay-Sachs.
Negative effects
It has fewer side effects. It has more side effects.
DNA molecule length
It causes the change in the length of the DNA molecule. It does not cause the change in the length of the DNA molecule.
Number of amino acids
Affects only one amino acid It affects all subsequent amino acids.
Impact on reading frame
It does not affect the reading frame of the protein. It affects the reading frame of the protein.

What is point mutation?

Point mutation is the type of genetic mutation that alters the position of a single nucleotide through the process of substitution with the nucleotide of another genetic molecule. It has fewer side effects, but the cause of this mutation results in very serious diseases such as sickle cell anemia. It has no impact on the reading frame of the proteins.

It only involves a single base pair. It means that you only need one amino acid mutation. The point mutation does not cause a change in the structure of the proteins, but it does cause a change in the length of the DNA molecule. It mainly affects the genetic code that translates the genetic code and causes the formation of amino acids in proteins.

It causes the change in the sequence of a single nucleotide. The change in genetic makeup can cause the nucleotide sequence to change, which affects the genetic codes, which in turn changes the amino acid sequence in proteins. As a result of all these processes, this can lead to the formation of defective proteins due to which different serious diseases such as sickle cell anemia.

What is frame shift mutation?

A frame shift mutation is the type of genetic mutation that alters the position of more than one nucleotide by the process of inserting other nucleotides or by the process of deletion of two or more nucleotides from the structure of the gene. Generally, it does not change the structure of the molecule, but it can alter the number of nucleotides in the DNA molecule.

The change in genetic makeup can cause the difference in nucleotide sequence, which affects genetic codes, which in turn changes the course of amino acids in proteins. As a result of all these processes, this can lead to the formation of defective proteins due to which different serious diseases such as Tay-Sach diseases.

It is a particular type of process that affects the reading frame of proteins. That is why it is called a frame shift mutation. The meaning of the frame shift mutation is the change in the number of amino acids in a protein molecule.

Key differences
  1. The point mutation is the change in the sequence of individual nucleotides; on the other hand, frame shift mutation is the change in sequence of more than one nucleotide.
  2. The point mutation involves only one amino acid; on the other hand, the reading frame shift mutation involves more than one amino acid.
  3. The point mutation does not affect the frame of the proteins; on the opposite side, the frame shift mutation impacts the protein’s reading frame.
  4. The point mutation increases the length of the DNA molecule; On the other side of the coin, the frame shift mutation does not change the length of the DNA molecule.
  5. The point mutation has less damaging effects; on the other hand, the frame shift mutation has more detrimental effects.
  6. The point mutation causes the alteration of the genetic structure; on the other hand, the frame shift mutation causes the alteration in the number of nucleotides.
  7. The point mutation causes serious diseases such as sickle cell anemia; on the opposite side, the frame shift mutation results in severe diseases such as Tay-Sach.
  8. Point mutation influences silent, nonsense, and nonsense mutations; On the other side of the coin, the frame shift mutation influences the alteration of the open reading frame of proteins.
  9. The point mutation occurs mainly through the substitution process; on the other hand, frame shift mutation occurs primarily by the process of insertion or deletion.
  10. The point mutation is the transition or transversions; on the other hand, the frame shift mutation is not the transition or the transversions.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that the point mutation is a single amino acid mutation; on the other hand, the reading frame shift mutation is the mutation of all subsequent amino acids.

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