Biology

Difference between plant virus and animal virus

Main difference

The main difference between the plant virus and the animal virus is that the plant virus mainly attacks plants and has single-stranded DNA or RNA, while the animal virus mainly attacks animals and has double-stranded DNA or RNA.

Plant viruses versus animal viruses

The plant virus is the virus that mainly attacks plants that have single-stranded DNA or RNA, while the animal virus mainly attacks animals and has double-stranded DNA or RNA. The plant virus contains single-stranded DNA or RNA as genetic material; on the other hand, the animal virus contains double-stranded DNA or RNA as genetic material. The plant virus contains the capsid only as its outer limit; on the contrary, the animal virus also contains an envelope in addition to the capsid. The plant virus has a linear nature of nucleic acid, but on the other hand, the animal virus has a linear or circular nature of nucleic acid. The plant virus infects or enters through a wound or pore, while the animal virus enters through endocytosis. The plant virus vector are mainly insects or other plant-feeding organisms, on the side, Animal virus vectors can vary from protozoa to humans or are sometimes carried by arthropods. Plant viruses are small, either filaments or polygons, while animal viruses show extreme variation in size and shape.

Comparative chart

Plant virus Animal virus
The virus that primarily attacks plants is called a plant virus. The virus that primarily attacks animals is called an animal virus.
Genetic material
RNA DNA
Capsid
It is just an outer limit. Also, have an envelope in addition to the capsid.
Nucleic acid strand
Single-stranded Double chain
Infection
Pass through the wound or pores. It enters by endocytosis.
Nature of nucleic acid
Linear Linear or circular
Size and shape
Small, either filaments or polygons. It shows extreme variation in size and shape.
Cartoon vector
Mainly insects or other organisms that feed on plants. It can vary from protozoa to humans or occasionally carried by arthropods.
What is the plant virus?

Viruses that mainly attack plants are called plant viruses. They have single-stranded DNA or RNA as genetic material. Plant viruses are intracellular parasites that could not replicate without a host, since they do not possess molecular machinery. The plant virus can be pathogenic for some higher plants. Plant viruses are mostly rod-shaped, with protein disks that form a tube around the viral genome; Isometric particles are another common plant virus structure. The plant virus has the only capsid that acts as an outer boundary. They rarely have an envelope. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is the first plant virus to be discovered. This virus and others cause annual losses of $ 60 billion in crops worldwide. Since plants do not move, plant-to-plant communication generally involves vectors. Plant vectors are mainly insects, weather, animals, fire, humans, infected plant sap, through pollen and some other organisms that feed on plantsPlants have cell walls, so plasmodesmata are the preferred pathway for virions to move between plant cells. Furthermore, the offspring of plants can inherit viral diseases from their parent plants. Its symptoms are hyperplasia, gills, hypoplasia, etc. through pollen and some other organisms that feed on plantsPlants have cell walls, so plasmodesmata are the preferred pathway for virions to move between plant cells. Furthermore, the offspring of plants can inherit viral diseases from their parent plants. Its symptoms are hyperplasia, gills, hypoplasia, etc. through pollen and some other organisms that feed on plantsPlants have cell walls, so plasmodesmata are the preferred pathway for virions to move between plant cells. Furthermore, the offspring of plants can inherit viral diseases from their parent plants. Its symptoms are hyperplasia, gills, hypoplasia, etc.

Examples

Tobacco mosaic virus, potato Y virus, etc.

What is the animal virus?

Viruses that mainly attack animals are called animal viruses. They have double-stranded DNA or RNA as genetic material. Unlike plant viruses, animal viruses do not have a cell wall to penetrate and access the host cell. The animal virus contains an envelope as an addition to the capsid. Some are “unwrapped” and “naked” animal viruses that enter the host cell in two different ways. One is receptor-mediated endocytosis in which when the viral capsid protein binds to the host cell receptor; the virus can enter the cell through a vesicle during normal cellular processing. Another method is to create channels in which the viral capsid proteins undergo shape changes after binding to the host cell receptor. creating different channels in the host cell membrane. The animal virus that is “enveloped” also has two forms of penetration, which are receptor-mediated endocytosis or fusion of the viral genome and the membrane. The receptor-mediated endocytosis process is the same as that of some non-enveloped virus processes. Fusion only occurs in enveloped viruses in which they fuse, thus releasing the genome and viral capsid into the cytoplasm. The animal virus is also associated with human diseases. Cancer is associated with viral infections such as cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus, etc. Animal virus vectors can vary from protozoa to humans, or sometimes arthropod-borne. The receptor-mediated endocytosis process is the same as that of some non-enveloped virus processes. Fusion only occurs in enveloped viruses in which they fuse, thus releasing the genome and viral capsid into the cytoplasm. The animal virus is also associated with human diseases. Cancer is associated with viral infections such as cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus, etc. Animal virus vectors can vary from protozoa to human or sometimes arthropod-borne. The receptor-mediated endocytosis process is the same as that of some non-enveloped virus processes. Fusion only occurs in enveloped viruses in which they fuse, thus releasing the genome and viral capsid into the cytoplasm. The animal virus is also associated with human diseases. Cancer is associated with viral infections such as cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus, etc. Animal virus vectors can vary from protozoa to human or sometimes arthropod-borne.

Examples

Human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus, etc.

Key differences
  1. The plant virus is the virus that mainly attacks plants and has single-stranded DNA or RNA, while the animal virus mainly attacks animals and has double-stranded DNA or RNA.
  2. The plant virus contains the capsid only as its outer limit; on the contrary, the animal virus also contains an envelope in addition to the capsid.
  3. The plant virus contains DNA or single-stranded RNA as genetic material; on the other hand, the animal virus contains double-stranded DNA or RNA as genetic material.
  4. The plant virus has a linear nucleic acid nature, but on the other hand, the animal virus has a linear or circular nucleic acid nature.
  5. The plant virus infects or enters through a wound or pore, while the animal virus enters through endocytosis.
  6. Plant virus vectors are primarily insects or other plant-eating organisms; on the other hand, animal virus vectors can vary from protozoa to humans or are sometimes carried by arthropods.
  7. Plant viruses are small, either filaments or polygons, while animal viruses show extreme variation in size and shape.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that the plant virus primarily attacks plants, while the animal virus primarily attacks animals.

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