Biology

Difference between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis

Main difference

Photosynthesis uses solar energy to produce glucose, whereas chemosynthesis does not require solar energy to produce glucose.

Comparative chart

Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis
Occur in Green plants Bacteria
Discoverer Jan Ingenhousz SN Vinogradskii (1887)
Fuels Water, carbon dioxide and solar energy Inorganic compounds
Final products Glucose and oxygen Glucose and oxygen
Applications As fuel for life As fuel for life

What is photosynthesis?

The ecosystem depends on the ability of organisms to convert inorganic compounds into food that other organisms use as fuel for their lives. Photosynthesis is a primary production of food that is powered by solar energy. Plants and microbes cannot eat food, so they must make themselves. Photosynthesis takes place in plants and some bacteria, where there is enough sunlight. This occurs on land, shallow water, and sometimes under ice where sunlight can reach. Species of photosynthetic organisms and plants convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen through the use of sunlight. The following formula is a description of this reaction: CO 2 + 6H 2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O 2Plants extract water from the soil through their roots. The water is then transferred to the leaves by particular plant cells called xylem. Plants consume some water when other natural processes occur, and some water is used during the photosynthesis process. Plants have special cells called stomata that open and close on stimulation. Plants take in carbon dioxide through the stomata and release the oxygen formed during the chemical reaction of photosynthesis. Plants also lose some water during this gas exchange. Chlorophyll is a complex molecule that is present in green plants and absorbs light. Any substance that absorbs light is called a pigment. Pigments absorb light of a specific wavelength and reflect the rest. Chlorophyll absorbs all wavelengths of light except green. For this reason, grass and tree leaves look green. When a plant absorbs light energy or carbon dioxide, chlorophyll causes the chemical reaction that converts light into two different substances; ATP and NADPH. ATP means adenosine triphosphate and NADPH means nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These two substances are unstable forms of energy that the plant uses for other reactions. During a chemical reaction, the water molecule splits and releases oxygen into the air. chlorophyll causes the chemical reaction that turns light into two different substances; ATP and NADPH. ATP means adenosine triphosphate and NADPH means nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These two substances are unstable forms of energy that the plant uses for other reactions. During a chemical reaction, the water molecule splits and releases oxygen into the air. chlorophyll causes the chemical reaction that turns light into two different substances; ATP and NADPH. ATP means adenosine triphosphate and NADPH means nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These two substances are unstable forms of energy that the plant uses for other reactions. During a chemical reaction, the water molecule splits and releases oxygen into the air.

What is chemosynthesis?

Chemosynthesis is another process that provides fuel to live on earth. In some settings, the primary production of fuel occurs through chemosynthesis (a nutritional characteristic) that runs on chemical energy. Chemosynthesis is a process of using energy produced by inorganic chemical reactions to produce food. This process occurs in the heart of deep-sea communities, sustaining life in absolute darkness where sunlight does not penetrate. All organisms that perform chemosynthesis use the energy released by chemical reactions to produce sugar. Different species use different pathways for chemosynthesis. For example, underwater hot springs are the most extensive ecosystem that relies on chemosynthesis. In these hydrothermal vents, bacteria oxidize hydrogen sulfide, add carbon dioxide and oxygen, and produce water, sulfur, and sugar. Other bacteria produce sugary matter by reducing sulfur or oxidizing methane. Chemosynthetic bacteria are present in hot springs on land and on the seafloor around hydrothermal vents, whale carcasses, cold seeps, and sunken ships. Hydrogen bacteria are the largest group of chemosynthetic bacteria. Chemosynthetic bacteria are present in hot springs on land and on the seafloor around hydrothermal vents, whale carcasses, cold seeps, and sunken ships. Hydrogen bacteria are the largest group of chemosynthetic bacteria. Chemosynthetic bacteria are present in hot springs on land and on the seafloor around hydrothermal vents, whale carcasses, cold seeps, and sunken ships. Hydrogen bacteria are the largest group of chemosynthetic bacteria.

Photosynthesis versus chemosynthesis

  • Both photosynthesis and chemosynthesis require carbon dioxide as fuel for the carbohydrate production process.
  • Both processes result in a source of energy for organisms.
  • Photosynthesis occurs only in green plants or organisms that have chlorophyll while chemosynthesis occurs only in bacteria.
  • Photosynthesis needs solar energy as an essential requirement, while chemosynthesis does not need solar energy for the process.
  • Photosynthesis also needs oxygen for the process, while chemosynthesis does not need oxygen for the process.
  • Water is used during the photosynthesis process, while water is produced as an end product in chemosynthesis.
  • Photosynthesis provides a significant contribution of energy to the total energy reserve of the biosphere, whereas chemosynthesis shows no such contribution.

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