Difference between nuclear fission and fusion

Nuclear fusion and fission are two different reactions that release or absorb huge amounts of energy. This is due to the presence of high power atomic bonds between the particles that exist within a nucleus. In fission, the nucleus of an atom splits into two or more smaller nuclei. For its part, fusion occurs when two or more atomic nuclei join together and create a heavier nucleus.

Comparison table

Nuclear fision
Nuclear fusion
Definition Nuclear fission refers to the splitting of the nucleus of a heavy atom into two or more smaller nuclei. In contrast, fusion refers to the joining of two or more atomic nuclei to form a larger one.
Natural recurrence of this phenomenon Nuclear fission does not usually occur naturally. Nuclear fusion is very frequent in stars, for example, in the sun.
reaction byproducts As a result of nuclear fission, particles with a high level of radioactivity are obtained. Very few radioactive particles are created by natural nuclear fusion. However, when provoked (not naturally), the result will always be radioactive particles.
Terms For fission to occur, the minimum material requirement is the critical mass of the substance. It is also necessary for the neutrons to reach a certain speed of travel. For fusion to be possible, a high density and ambient temperature are needed.
Required energy A fission does not need too much energy, although it also depends a lot on the element that you want to fission. To achieve a fusion requires an enormous amount of energy. This is because when trying to bring two protons together, the mutual electrical repulsion must be overcome.
energy released The energy released by a fission is a million times greater than that released in ordinary chemical reactions. As for fusion, the energy it releases is 3-4 times larger than that released in fission.
use as weapons Almost all nuclear weapons work through nuclear fission. The atomic bomb is an example of a nuclear fission weapon, and is classified as a weapon of mass destruction. This type of weapons form, when detonated, the famous mushroom cloud. The elements that fission in atomic bombs are uranium and plutonium. The bombs used in Nagasaki and Hiroshima were atomic bombs. The power of these bombs was 20 and 15 KT respectively. As for fusion, there is only one weapon that works on this principle. This is the hydrogen bomb, also known as a thermonuclear bomb, a fusion bomb, or an H-bomb. The thermonuclear bomb has never been used as a weapon, only in tests. Of the tests, the most popular is Castle Bravo , detonated on Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. The largest nuclear explosion in history, was also caused by an H-bomb. This was detonated by the Soviets in ’61 and had a power of 50 Mt.
Energy production Fission is currently used in nuclear power plants for the generation of electrical energy. Fusion is a technology still in the experimental phase for the production of electrical energy. The power generated there is still very low.
fuels Nuclear power plants run on uranium. Still in the experimental phase, they use isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium).

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