The north pole of the earth is also identified as the geographical north pole, it is the one that agrees with the axis of rotation of the earth and is opposite to the south pole. Its coordinates are 90° 0′ 0” N , 0° 0′ 0” E. It is located on the Arctic Ocean, covered by an ice cap, which is why it is also often called the Arctic. Likewise, it is the natural habitat of polar bears, arctic foxes and the ringed seal and in the surrounding regions are inhabited by humans.
The climate at the North Pole is quite cold with average temperatures of -35°C in winter and 0°C in summer. The highest temperature recorded has been 5°C. The thickness of the North Pole ice cap varies between 2 to 3 meters, although it is estimated that this has been decreasing over the years, possibly in response to global warming. Also, it presents solar cycles where 6 months are day and 6 months are night.
It can be noted that the south pole refers to the geographic south pole of the earth where the coordinates are 90°0’0′ ‘S and 0°0’0”E, as opposed to the north pole. It is located over Antarctica, which is considered the southernmost continent on earth and has an area of 14,000,000 km 2 .
The climate in the south pole is desert and presents average temperatures in winter of -65°C and in summer of -25°C. Also, given that at the south pole the sun takes 6 months to hide and practically another 6 months to come back out, which allows temperatures to also vary depending on the heat of the sun. However, on the south pole, the ice cap of about 2700 meters above sea level, which reflects much of the sun’s rays and therefore heat, which makes it colder than the north pole.
As stated above, the following table is presented with the differences between the North Pole and the South Pole :
|North Pole||South Pole|
|It is located in the north of the earth with a latitude of 90°N and longitude 0°.||It is located south of the earth with a latitude of 90°S and longitude 0°.|
|The North Pole is less cold than the South Pole, with temperatures of -35°C in winter and 0°C in summer.||The south pole is much colder than the north, with temperatures as low as -65°C in winter and -25°C in summer.|
|It is located on the Arctic Ocean.||It is located on Antarctica, the fifth largest continent in the world.|
|At the north pole there are surrounding regions that are populated by people. It is the natural habitat of polar bears, arctic foxes and seals.||Antarctica is the natural habitat of penguins, however, low temperatures make it not feasible for humans to develop a normal life.|
|It is covered by an ice cap 2 to 3 meters thick.||It is covered by an ice cap of about 2,700 meters, making it a significantly larger ice mass than the North Pole.|
|When the north pole is in the 6 day solar cycle, the opposite is true at the south pole.||When the south pole is in the 6 month night solar cycle, the opposite is true at the north pole.|