Biology

Difference between Natural Selection and Artificial Selection

Main difference

The main difference between natural selection and artificial selection is that natural selection is a natural process to select the fittest, while artificial selection is an artificial process to select the organism with the desired characters.

Natural selection versus artificial selection

Natural selection is a natural process of selecting the fittest individual in this universe who can survive in all kinds of situations. On the other hand, artificial selection is a type of artificial technique that is used to select the organism with the desired traits, and it is also recognized as selective breeding. An organism that is selected through natural selection has a better chance of survival. On the other hand, an artificially selected organism has little chance of survival. The new race may be at risk due to different characters.

Natural selection is a very slow process that takes a long time to complete and is controlled by nature. On the other hand, artificial selection is a fast process that is artificially controlled by humans according to their needs. Natural selection takes place in all organisms in the universe. On the other hand, artificial selection is used for some selective organisms.

Natural selection depends on the adaptive character. Select the body that can cope with all kinds of situations. On the other hand, artificial selection depends on the required characters. Select the organism with desired or useful characters. Natural selection causes the transformation of the entire population of a species. On the other hand, artificial selection causes the formation of a new species or variety.

Natural selection is divided into three different types, that is, directional selection, stabilizing selection, and disruptive selection. On the other hand, artificial selection is not divided further. Natural selection has increased the diversity of nature. On the other hand, artificial selection is used mainly for economic purposes.

Natural selection takes place in each and every population in this universe. On the other hand, artificial selection takes place mainly in domestic animals. For example, Darwin’s finches evolve through a species of birds on the Galapagos Islands. On the other hand, artificial selection is mainly performed on a pet or domestic animal to obtain the required benefit from the organism, that is, milk or meat, etc.

Comparative chart

Natural selection Artificial selection
A natural process of selecting the fittest individual in this universe who can survive in all kinds of situations is known as natural selection. One type of artificial technique that is used to select organisms with desired traits is known as artificial selection.
Also know as
There is no other name for natural selection. It is also recognized as a selective breeding.
Process type
It is a type of natural process controlled by nature itself. It is an artificial process controlled by humans.
Processing rate
It is a very slow process that takes hundreds of years. It is a quick process that can be completed in a few years.
Chances of survival
A naturally selected organism has a better chance of survival. An artificially selected organism has little chance of survival as the new breed may be at risk due to different traits.
Type of organisms
It takes place in all organisms in the universe. Artificial selection is used only for some selective organisms.
Characters
Natural selection depends on adaptable characters that can cope with all kinds of situations. Artificial selection depends on the required characters.
Causes
It causes the transformation of the entire population of a species. Artificial selection causes the formation of a new species or variety.
Importance
This selection has increased the diversity of nature. It is used mainly for economic purposes.
Types
It is divided into three different types, that is, directional selection, stabilizing selection, and disruptive selection. Artificial selection has no types.
Examples
Darwin’s finches evolve through a species of bird in the Galapagos Islands due to natural selection. Artificial selection is mainly done on the pet or domestic animals to get the required benefits from them, that is, milk or meat, etc.
What is natural selection ?

Natural selection is a natural process of selecting the fittest individual in this universe who can survive in all kinds of situations. Charles Darwin was the first to give the concept of natural selection in 1859. He presented the theory of natural selection. According to this theory, it is a process controlled by nature that selects the most suitable characters without the intervention of humans and causes evolution.

Natural selection is the process that favors the fittest individual in a population to survive, reproduce, and increase their numbers. On the other hand, individuals who are not strong enough to cope with the harsh environment and any other variation, cannot grow or reproduce and completely die off. Natural selection takes place in all organisms in this universe, that is, aquatic, terrestrial or arboreal, etc.

Natural selection is a very slow process that takes hundreds of years. Each descendant of the ancestors has better adapted conditions than the previous one. For example, the above giraffes have a short neck. They couldn’t get their food from the trees. Gradually, over many years, they developed long necks to increase their survival rate. Now, there are long-necked giraffes in the world that can easily get their food through long trees. So it can produce new species.

Components of natural selection

  • The organisms in a population should have variations between them.
  • These variations should be able to be transferred to the next generations, that is, inheritable.
  • The population growth rate must be high.
  • Organisms in the population must have different rates of reproduction and survival.
Types
  • Directional selection: It is a type of natural selection that selects any extreme condition of the population.
  • Stabilizing selection: It is a type of natural selection that selects the intermediate condition of the population.
  • Disruptive selection: It is a form of natural selection that chooses both the extreme conditions of the population.

What is artificial selection ?

Artificial selection is a type of artificial technique used to select organisms with desired characters. It is also recognized as a selective breeding. Artificial selection is an artificial process controlled by humans. It is a quick process that can be completed in a few years. Artificial selection causes the formation of a new species or variety.

Artificial selection is used mainly for economic purposes. So, it acts on limited organisms, that is, mostly domestic organisms. An artificially selected organism has little chance of survival as the new breed may be at risk due to different traits.

Artificial selection can be better explained with the help of an example, that is, if we need a cow with some special characters, that is, more milk and meat production, we will cross the different cows with the desired characters. This miscegenation will give rise to a new variety with different characters. This new breed has little chance of survival, but if it does survive, it will show the required results.

Nowadays, artificial selection is widely used due to the high demand for good quality vegetables, fruits and pets, for example cows, sheep, dogs, buffalo, etc. Every day new varieties emerge for the benefit of humanity.

Key differences
  1. A natural process of selecting the fittest individual in this universe who can survive in all kinds of situations is known as natural selection, while a type of artificial technique used to select organisms with the desired traits is known as artificial selection.
  2. Natural selection has no other name. On the other hand, artificial selection is also recognized as selective breeding.
  3. Natural selection is a type of natural process controlled by nature itself. In contrast, artificial selection is an artificial process controlled by humans.
  4. Natural selection is a very slow process that takes hundreds of years. On the other hand, artificial selection is a quick process that can be completed in a few years.
  5. A naturally selected organism has a better chance of survival. On the other hand, an artificially selected organism has little chance of survival as the new breed may be at risk due to different characters.
  6. Natural selection takes place in all organisms in the universe, while artificial selection is used only for some selective organisms.
  7. Natural selection depends on an adaptable character that can cope with all kinds of situations. On the other hand, artificial selection depends on the required characters, that is, the desired characteristics.
  8. Natural selection causes the transformation of the entire population of a species, while artificial selection causes the formation of a new species or variety.
  9. Natural selection has increased the diversity of nature. On the other hand, artificial selection is used mainly for economic purposes.
  10. Natural selection is divided into three different types, that is, directional selection, stabilizing selection, and disruptive selection. On the other hand, artificial selection is not divided into types.
  11. Darwin’s finches evolve through a species of bird in the Galapagos Islands due to natural selection. On the other hand, artificial selection is mainly done on a pet or domestic animal to get the required benefit from them, that is, milk or meat, etc.
Final Thought

The above discussion summarizes that natural selection is a process controlled by nature that favors the fittest and affects all organisms in this universe. On the other hand, artificial selection is a technique controlled by man to obtain the selected organisms with the desired characters.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button