Difference between NADH and NADPH

Main difference

The main difference between NADH and NADPH is that NADH is used in cellular respiration while during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, while NADPH is used in photosynthesis during the Calvin cycle. to assimilate carbon dioxide.

NADH versus NADPH

NADH is used in cellular respiration, while during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle and reaction, they use an electron transport chain to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, while NADPH is used in photosynthesis while during Calvin cycle in the reaction to light to assimilate carbon dioxide. . NAD +, when they undergo reduction reactions, form NADH, on the other hand, when NADP + is reduced, they form NADPH. In the context of reduction reactions, it can be said that NADH is a reduced form of NAD +, while NADPH is a reduced form of NADP +.

NADH also undergoes oxidation when it is oxidized to form NAD + in the oxidation reaction; on the contrary, NADPH is oxidized to form NADP + during its oxidation. NADH participates in cellular respiration processes that can take place in the absence of light; however, NADPH participates in photosynthesis that takes place in the presence of light. NADH is used in the electron transport chain to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation; however, NADPH is used in the Calvin cycle to assimilate carbon dioxide.

NADH does not include a free phosphate group; on the other hand, NADPH contains a free phosphate group attached to the adenine residue at the 2 ‘position of ribose. NADH is primarily involved in catabolic reactions only, while NADPH is involved in anabolic reactions. NAD + is the most abundant form found compared to NADH; however, NADPH is the most abundant form found in cells.

Comparative chart

NADH NADPH
NADH is used in cellular respiration during glycolysis and the Kreb cycle. NADPH is used in photosynthesis during the Calvin cycle.
Reduction
NAD + is reduced to form NADH. NADP + is reduced to form NADPH.
Rusty form
It oxidizes to form NAD +. It oxidizes to form NADP +.
Intervention
It is involved in cellular respiration. Participate in photosynthesis.
Production
It occurs in glycolysis and the Kerb cycle. It is produced in reaction to light from photosynthesis.
Function
It is used in the electron transport chain to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. It is used in the Calvin cycle to assimilate carbon dioxide.
Phosphate group
It does not contain a free phosphate group. It contains a free phosphate group attached to the adenine residue at the 2 ‘position of ribose.
Type of reactions
These are involved in anabolic reactions. These are involved in catabolic reactions.
Abundance
NAD + is the most abundant form found compared to NADH. NADPH is the most abundant form found in cells.
What is NADH?

NADH is known primarily for its reduced form of NAD. It is one of the most abundant types of coenzyme that is present within cells. These coenzymes participate in oxidation-reduction reactions during cell aspiration. These are involved in the conduct of cellular metabolism by serving hydrogen and electron donors.

NADH consists of two ribose molecules linked by phosphate groups. NADH is more complex only in catabolic processes. It occurs while glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are taking place. Most dehydrogenase in cells uses NAD + as a coenzyme in their catabolic reactions, as they donate hydrogen and electrons to form NADH. NADH also undergoes oxidation as it oxidizes to form NAD + in the oxidation reaction.

In the context of the reduction reactions that take the place of these two coenzymes, it can be said that NADH is a reduced form of NAD +. NADH participates in cellular respiration processes that can take place in the absence of light. NADH is used in the electron-carrying chain to form ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. NAD + is the most abundant form found compared to NADH.

NADH is used in cellular respiration while during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, and during the reaction, they use an electron transport chain to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, NAD + when subjected to reduction reactions form NADH. In glycolysis, two NADH are produced, which can then be used in the conversion of ATP; however, in the Krebs cycle, six NADHs are produced. In addition to the NADH produced in the Krebs cycle, two FADH2 are also produced, serving as another coenzyme just like NADH. Both molecules can be used for the electron transport chain.

As NADH serves as both an electron and hydrogen donor, by donating its electrons to protein membranes in the inner mitochondrial membrane, it serves its purpose. These electrons are then used in the production of ATP through an oxidative phosphorylation process.

NADH does not contain a free phosphate group. NADH contains two phosphate groups that are attached to an oxygen molecule; Each phosphate group binds to a five-carbon ribose sugar along with one of these phosphate groups binds to an adenine molecule while the other binds to a nicotinamide molecule. NADH participates in their reactions by accepting and donating electrons. NADH is primarily involved in catabolic reactions only.

What is NADPH?

NADPH is preferred primarily because of its reduced form of NADP +. This NADP are the most abundant coenzymes within the cell. Like NADH and FADH2, it is also one of the most abundant types of coenzyme that is present within cells. This NADPH is complex in carrying out oxidation-reduction reactions while the photosynthesis process is taking place.

NADPH is used in photosynthesis while during the Calvin cycle in the reaction of light to assimilate carbon dioxide. These are involved in the conduct of cellular metabolism by serving hydrogen and electron donors. They participate mainly in the performance of anabolic reactions such as the synthesis of lipids or the formation of nucleic acids.

NADPH is the most common type of NADPH compared to NADP. They are capable of donating hydrogens and electrons during a chemical reaction. NADPH also called a reducing agent. When NADP + is reduced, they form NADPH. Where in NADP + it contains two electrons smaller than its reduced form NADPH. In this way, it acts as an electron transport agent while also transporting hydrogen along with it.

Thus supplying electrons necessary for the electron transport chain. In the context of reduction reactions that take the place of these coenzymes, it can be said that NADPH is a reduced form of NADP +. NADPH is the most common type found in cells. They consist of two ribose molecules linked by phosphate groups. NADPH also undergoes oxidation as it is oxidized to form NADP + during its oxidation.

Each of these ribose-bound phosphate groups is connected on one side to the adenine group and the other to the nicotinamide group. However, it differs structurally from NADH with the presence of an additional free phosphate group in its structure. This phosphate group is attached to the adenine residue at the 2 ‘position of ribose. NADPH is produced in the presence of light since the photosynthesis reaction takes place by the enzyme ferredoxin-NADP + reductase.

During the Calvin cycle, the reducing power of NADPH is used to assimilate carbon dioxide. In animals, its function varies as it is used in the pentose phosphate pathway there. NADPH is intricate in anabolic processes. In plants, NADPH participates in photosynthesis that takes place in the presence of light. NADPH is formed in light photosynthesis processes in plants.

Key differences

  1. NADH is used in cellular respiration during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, while NADPH is used in photosynthesis during the Calvin cycle.
  2. NAD +, when subjected to reduction reactions, form NADH; on the other hand, when NADP + is reduced, they form NADPH.
  3. NADH is oxidized to form NAD + when an oxidation reaction takes place; on the contrary, NADPH is oxidized to form NADP + during its oxidation.
  4. NADH participates in cellular respiration processes that can take place in the absence of light; however, NADPH participates in photosynthesis that takes place in the presence of light.
  5. NADH is used in the electron transport chain to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation; however, NADPH is used in the Calvin cycle to assimilate carbon dioxide.
  6. NADH is produced in glycolysis and the Kerb cycle; on the other hand, NADPH is produced in a light reaction of photosynthesis.
  7. NADH does not contain a free phosphate group; on the other hand, NADPH contains a free phosphate group attached to the adenine residue at the 2 ‘position of ribose.
  8. NADH is primarily involved in catabolic reactions only, while NADPH is involved in anabolic reactions.
  9. NAD + is the most abundant form found compared to NADH; however, NADPH is the most abundant form found in cells.

Final Thought

NADH is used in cellular respiration to drive anabolic reactions during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, while NADPH is used in photosynthesis to drive catabolic reactions during the Calvin cycle to assimilate carbon dioxide.

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