Biology

Difference between monogastric digestive system and ruminant digestive system

Main difference

The main difference between the monogastric digestive system and the ruminant digestive system is that the digestion of the monogastric digestive system takes place in the stomach, while the digestion of the ruminant digestive system takes place in the rumen.

Monogastric digestive system versus ruminant digestive system

The monogastric digestive system is considered as the organ system in which the digestion of plants and animals takes place, while the ruminant digestive system is considered as the organ system in which the digestion of plants mainly takes place. The monogastric digestive system is present mainly in carnivores that eat animal material and in omnivores that eat both plants and animals, while on the contrary, the ruminant digestive system is present only in herbivores.

The monogastric digestive system is modified to digest both plant and animal materials; on the other hand, the digestive system of ruminants adjusts to digest only plant ingredients. The length of the monogastric digestive system is short, while the length of the digestive system of ruminants is relatively long.

Enzymes are secreted in the monogastric digestive system to digest proteins; on the contrary, enzymes are lacking in the digestive system of ruminants to digest any protein. Four, perforator canines are present in the monogastric digestive system, while two boring canines are present in the ruminant digestive system. In the monogastric digestive system, the premolars and molars move in a perpendicular direction; on the other hand, in the digestive system of ruminants, the premolars and molars move in the adjacent direction.

The monogastric digestive system of humans produces a saliva of approximately 1-1.5 liters per day. In contrast, on the other hand, the digestive system of cow ruminants produces a saliva of approximately 65 liters per day. The monogastric digestive system does not contain regurgitation, whereas the digestive system of ruminants consists of regurgitations during the digestion process.

Comparative chart
Monogastric digestive system Ruminant digestive system
A digestive system that contains a single-partitioned stomach, which primarily aids in the digestion process, is known as a monogastric digestive system. A digestive system consisting of a multi-section stomach that primarily aids in the digestion process is known as a ruminant digestive system.
Considered as
The organ system in which the digestion of plants and animals takes place. The organ system in which the digestion of plants primarily takes place.
Type of animals
Present mainly in carnivores that eat animal material and in omnivores that eat both plants and animals. Present only in herbivores
Diet type
Modified to digest both plant and animal materials. Adjusted to digest only plant ingredients
Length
Short Length
Enzymes to digest proteins
Enzymes are secreted to digest proteins. Lack of enzymes to digest any protein.
Canines
There are four sharp canines There are two blunt canines
Premolars and Molars
The premolars and molars move in a vertical direction. The premolars and molars move in the adjacent direction.
Saliva
Humans produce about 1-1.5 liters of saliva per day. The cow produces saliva of approximately 65 liters per day.
Digestive enzymes in saliva
Saliva contains carbohydrate digestive enzymes. Saliva does not consist of digestive enzymes.
Regurgitation
Does not contain regurgitation It consists of regurgitation during the digestion process.
Rumen / Stomach
It consists of a simple stomach It consists of a complex rumen
Number of stomach compartments
A single compartment stomach Four compartment stomach
Liver
About 1.5 kg of liver weighs Cow liver weighs more than human liver
Small intestine length
The human small intestine is 6.1 m long The small intestine of cows is 46 m long
Colon Length
The human colon is 5-6 m long The cow’s colon is 11 m long
What is the monogastric digestive system?

The digestive system, which aids in the digestion of both plant and animal components, is known as the monogastric digestive system. The digestive system is called ‘monogastric’ as it contains only one stomach. The monogastric digestive system is present in equine, swine, human, bird, dog, and rabbit animals.

The monogastric digestive system is made up of the esophagus, mouth, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, and anus. The digestion process begins mechanically and chemically when food enters the mouth. Saliva is made up of enzymes known as carbohydrate digestive enzymes to digest carbohydrates. The esophagus is the pathway that guides food into the stomach.

Animals that have a monogastric digestive system eat animal tissues for food. The monogastric digestive system is modified to digest both plant and animal materials. Therefore, their diet is relatively easy to digest and a single compartment stomach is sufficient for this purpose.

What is the digestive system of ruminants?

The digestive system, which is considered a specific organ system in which the digestion plant components mainly occur, is known as the ruminant digestive system. This digestive system is present in cattle, cows, sheep, deer, and goats.

Ruminant animals contain upper jaws that do not have front teeth, but as a substitute, a hard layer of skin is present, which is called the dental pad. The digestive system of ruminants consists of four divided stomachs. There is an omasum, rumen, reticulum, and abomasum present. The first three parts of the stomach, which consist of the rumen of the reticulum and the omasum, participate in the digestion of plant fibers.

For the most part, microflora are involved in the digestive system of ruminants in which they break down cellulose by fermentation, forming unstable fatty acids, for example, butyrate, acetate and propionate. The unstable fatty acids are digested by the cow as a source of nutrition.

In the fourth part of the stomach, known as the abomasum, digestive enzymes are secreted. That is why in ruminant animals, fermentation occurs before the digestion of food, which is why this procedure is known as foregut fermentation.

In addition, the digestive system of ruminants partially digests the food and then the bolus repeating it from the first part of the stomach. In addition to the small and large intestines, the digestive system of ruminants contains a large cecum to further digest plant fibers.

Key differences

  1. The monogastric digestive system is known as a system consisting of a single divided stomach, which primarily helps in the digestion process; On the other hand, the digestive system of ruminants is known as a digestive system that consists of a multi-partitioned compartment that relatively helps in the digestion process.
  2. The monogastric digestive system is a single-chamber stomach, while the digestive system of ruminants is a four-chamber stomach.
  3. The organ system that digests both plants and animals is present in the monogastric digestive system; on the contrary, the organ system that digests only plants is present in the digestive system of ruminants.
  4. Carnivores that eat only animals and omnivores that eat both plants and animals consist mainly of the monogastric digestive system; on the other hand, the digestive system of ruminants is only present in herbivores that only eat plants.
  5. The regurgitation process does not occur in the monogastric digestive system, whereas the regurgitation process occurs in the digestive system of ruminants and ingests food during digestion.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that the monogastric digestive system contains a single-compartment stomach and eats material from both plants and animals. In contrast, the digestive system of ruminants consists of a complex four-compartment stomach and only feeds on herbivores.

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