Biology

Difference between monocotyledonous plants and dicotyledonous plants

Main difference

As we know, plants are mainly divided into two types, namely flowering plants and non-flowering plants (angiosperms or gymnosperms). It is worth mentioning that around 80% of all existing green plants are flowering plants. These flowering plants are further divided into monocots and dicots. The monocot is the plant that has only one cotyledon in the embryo, while the dicot is the plant that has two cotyledons in the embryo. Monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants differ from each other in four structures: leaves, stems, roots, and seeds.In monocotyledonous roots, the pericycle present only produces the lateral roots, while, in dicotyledonous roots, the pericycle gives rise to the lateral roots, the cork cambium and the part of the vascular cambium. In the stem of monocots, the vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem without a defined arrangement. On the other hand, in the stem of dicotyledons, the vascular bundles are arranged in the form of one or two broken rings, then they have a defined shape. The leaves of the monocots have mostly parallel veins while; dicot leaves have webbed veins.

Comparative chart

Monocot plants Dicotyledonous plants
Definition Monocotyledonous plants are the flowering plants, which have only one cotyledon in the plant embryo. Dicotyledonous plants are flowering plants, which have two cotyledons in the plant embryo.
Xylem and phloem In monocot roots, the xylem and phloem are numerous in numbers. In dicot roots, the xylem and phloem are limited in number.
Marrow In monocot root it is large and well developed. Absent
Beam sheath In the stem of monocots, the bundle sheath is present as it surrounds the scattered vascular bundles. Absent
Stomata Monocot leaves have the same number of stomata on each surface. Dicotyledonous leaves have more stomata on the lower surface.
What are monocot plants?

Monocotyledonous plants are the flowering plants, which have only one cotyledon in the plant embryo. There are many factors and structures that distinguish monocots from dicots.

Monocot root: the number of xylem and phloem is high in this case. The xylem vessels present are round or oval. The pericycle present only produces the lateral roots. The medulla is present in the xylem, it is quite large and well developed.

Monocot stem: Monocot stem also has single-layered epidermis along with thick cuticle, although epidermal hairs are absent in the case. Due to the presence of lateral branches, circular stems are absent in monocots.

Monocotyledonous Leaf: The Monocotyledonous leaf has a double epidermal layer, one on the upper surface and one on the lower surface. The thick cuticle is present on the outer surface, while the lower surface has a thin cuticle. The cells of the epidermis are filled with many chloroplasts. Bulliform cells are present in the upper epidermis. The epidermis of monocots also has many intercellular spaces in them. The mesophyll is present in the spongy parenchyma. The monocot leaf has the same number of stomata on both sides. Monocot leaves have parallel veins.

What are dicot plants?

Dicotyledonous plants are flowering plants, which have two cotyledons in the plant embryo.

Dicotyledonous root: The xylem they possess is in the shape of an ‘X’ and is surrounded by the phloem. At the same time, the number of xylem and phloem remains very similar in dicot roots, as the phloem limits each of the xylem it contains. Its vascular bundles are arranged in the form of one or two broken rings.

Dicot Stem : The dicot stem has single layer epidermis along with thick cuticle. Mainly, the difference in the arrangement of the vascular bundles makes the difference between them and the stem of the monocot. As dicots are more complex compared to monocots, they may or may not have epidermal hairs, which are essential for insulation, heat, and absorption in plants. Its vascular bundles are arranged in the form of one or two broken rings.

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Dicotyledonous leaf: The dicotyledonous leaf also has a double epidermal layer, one on the upper surface and one on the lower surface. The cuticle is evenly present on the outer and inner surface. Bulliform cells are usually absent. The mesophyll is composed of two types of tissues, one of spongy parenchyma and the other of palisade parenchyma. Dicotyledonous leaves have large intercellular spaces in them. Dicotyledonous leaves have more stomata on the lower surface. Dicot leaves have net veins.

Monocotyledonous plants vs. dicotyledonous plants

  • Monocotyledonous plants are the flowering plants, which have only one cotyledon in the plant embryo. On the other hand, dicotyledonous plants are flowering plants, which have two cotyledons in the plant embryo.
  • In the roots of monocots, the xylem and phloem are numerous. On the other hand, in dicot roots, the xylem and phloem are limited in number.
  • The pith is absent in the dicot root, while in the monocot root it is large and well developed.
  • In the dicot stem, the bundle sheath is not present, while in the monocot stem the bundle sheath is present as it surrounds the scattered vascular bundles.
  • Monocot leaves have the same number of stomata on each surface, while dicot leaves have more stomata on the lower surface.
  • Monocot leaves have bulliform cells in the upper epidermis, while dicot leaves do not have bulliforms.

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