Within the plant kingdom, those plants with seeds are divided into gymnosperms and angiosperms. Angiosperms are the group of plants that have flowers, within which we get the monocotyledons and dicotyledons or eudicots.
It is a kind of plant that produces flowers that have seeds that have a cotyledon. They are predominantly herbaceous.
They have a well developed endosperm. Starch and proteins necessary for the initial growth of the plant are stored in the seed. Germination is hypogeal, that is, the cotyledon remains underground.
They are isobilaterally symmetrical, have parallel veins, smooth edges, and a long sheath that covers the stem. The stomata are evenly distributed on the leaf surfaces.
root and stem
The main root is not developed and the root system is adventitious. The stem can be hollow or full. Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem. The stems and roots do not have a cambium and their diameter does not vary.
They have a simple calyx with a number of petals multiple of three.
examples of monocots
This class contains 25% of flowering plants and is divided into the following subclasses:
The most important families are Poaceae (oats, rice, wheat), Liliaceae (onions, garlic, tulips), Bromeliaceae (bromeliads and pineapples), Orchidaceae (orchids), Iridaceae (crocuses, gladioli and irises).
It is a category of flowering plants whose seeds have two lateral cotyledons.
Starch, proteins and fats are stored in the seed, which are used for the initial growth of the plant. The germination of dicotyledons is hypogeal or epigeal, that is, the cotyledons can be below or above the ground, respectively.
The leaves are simple or complex, with dorsoventral symmetry. They present reticulated veins and often with uneven, jagged or sectioned edges. The stomata are on the lower surface of the leaves.
roots and stem
Dicots have a secondary root system derived from a primary root. The stems are solid. The vascular bundles in the stems are concentric. The stems and roots have change and their diameter can grow.
The number of flower petals is equal to or a multiple of four and five.
examples of dicots
The Magnoliopsida class has six subclasses:
- witch hazel,
The essential families are the Fabaceae (legumes), Lamiaceae (mint, lavender, oregano, rosemary), Rosaceae (rose, blackberry), Cucurbitaceae (pumpkin or gourd, melon, cucumber) and Cactaceae (cactus).
Monocots and Dicots
|Definition||Class of plants whose seeds have a cotyledon||Class of plant whose seeds have two cotyledons|
|type of plants||herbaceous||annuals and trees|
|seed germination||hypogea||epigeal or hypogeal|
|Leaves||Simple, isobilateral symmetry, parallel veins||Simple or complex, dorsiventral symmetry, reticulate veins|
|stems||solid or hollow||solid|
|root system||Adventitia, diameter does not vary||Derivative, diameter increases in size|
|flowers||Number of petals equal to 3 or its multiples||Number of petals equal to 4 or 5 or their multiples|
|examples||Rice (Oryza sativa), corn (Zea maiz), banana or plantain (Musa sp)||Grape (Vitis vinifera), beans (Phaseolus sp.), mango (Mangifera sp.)|