Difference Between Molarity and Normality
Main difference
The main difference between molarity and normality is that molarity is considered as the number of moles that are present in a mixture of compounds while normality is considered as the number of gram equivalents of a compound that are present in the mixture of compounds. …
Molarity versus normality
Molarity is considered as the number of moles of a compound that are present in a one liter solution, while normality is the amount of solution present in gram equivalents of a solute weight in a one liter solution. The molarity unit is calculated as mol/L; on the other hand, the unit of normality is calculated as eq/L or meq/L. The dependence of the molarity present in a solution does not depend on the type of reaction that the solute undergoes; on the contrary, the dependence of the normality present in a solution depends on the type of reaction that the solute undergoes.
The molarity of a solution can be altered by the change in temperature with increasing volume; on the other hand, the normality of a solution cannot be affected by the change in temperature. The molarity of a solution generally depends on the volume, temperature, solubility of a solute, and the addition of more solutes into the solution; on the other hand, the normality of a solution generally depends on the reactive species that are normally present in that normality solution. Molarity is symbolized by “M”, while normality is usually symbolized by “N”.
Molarity is considered as the unit of concentration, which is used to calculate temperature change through experiments, while normality is generally used more frequently for titration calculations. An example of molarity is described as a 1 M H _{2} SO _{4 solution,} typically containing 1 mole H _{2} SO _{4} per liter of solution; on the contrary, the example of normality is when the 1 M H _{2} SO _{4} contains a molarity of 2 N because there are usually 2 moles of H + ions present in a solution per liter.
Molarity can be converted to normality by N = M * n where ‘n’ is taken to be the number of equivalents present in a 1 liter solution. The molarity formula for the calculation is written as “molarity = moles of solute / liters of solution”; on the other hand, the formula for calculating normality is written as “normality = number of molar equivalents / 1 L of solution”.
Comparison chart
molarity | Normal |
Molarity is generally considered to be the number of moles of solute present per liter of solution. | Normality is generally considered to be the number of molar equivalents per liter of solution. |
Unit | |
mol/L | eq/L or meq/L |
Reaction dependency | |
It does not depend on the type of reaction that the solute undergoes. | It depends on the type of reaction the solute goes through. |
temperature effect | |
It can be changed by the change in temperature by increasing the volume. | It cannot be affected by temperature change. |
Other factors | |
It usually depends on volume, temperature, solubility of a solute, and the addition of more solutes in solution. | It generally depends on the reactive species that are normally present in that normality solution. |
Symbol | |
Symbolized by “M” | Symbolized by “N” |
Used for | |
Considered as the unit of concentration, which is used to calculate the temperature change by experiments. | It is generally most often used for titration calculations. |
Conversion | |
It can be converted to normal by N = M * n where ‘n’ is taken to be the number of equivalents present in a 1 liter solution. | It cannot be converted to molarity. |
Formula | |
Molarity = moles of solute / liters of solution | Normality = number of molar equivalents / 1 L of solution |
Example | |
1M H _{2} SO _{4} solution typically contains 1 mol of H _{2} SO _{4} per liter of solution | 1M H _{2} SO _{4} contains a molarity of 2 N because 2 moles of H + ions are usually present in a solution per liter |
What is molarity?
The term molarity is defined as the number of moles of a compound that are present in a solute per liter of solution. Molarity is symbolized by “M.” Molarity is also known as molar concentration because it generally gives the concentration of compounds via moles per liter. The unit of molarity is calculated as mol/L, which is generally used to calculate the molarity of a solution.
However, the measurement of molarity is done in liters, so the molarity of a solution is measured with respect to solutions such as liquids. A solution consists of solute and solvent in which solutes normally dissolve in a solvent, and this mixture of solvent and solutes is known as a solution.
Molarity is considered as the unit of concentration, which is used to calculate the temperature change by experiments. The molarity of a solution can be transformed by changing the temperature by increasing the volume. The dependence of the molarity present in a solution does not depend on the type of reaction the solute undergoes, but the molarity of a solution generally depends on the volume, temperature, solubility of a solute, and the addition of more solutes into the solution.
The amount of solutes that are present in one liter of solution is known as the molarity of the solution. So, molarity is calculated by dividing the number of moles present in the solution by the volume of the particular solution. Molarity can be converted to normality by N = M * n where ‘n’ is taken to be the number of equivalents present in a 1 liter solution.
An example of molarity is a 1M H _{2} SO _{4 solution that} typically contains 1 mole of H _{2} SO _{4} per liter of solution. The equation for molarity is Molarity = moles of solute / liters of solution or C = n / V, where C is the number of moles, n is the number of moles, and V is the volume of solution.
What is normal?
The term normality is defined as the number of moles present in a solution that are equivalent in weight per liter of solution. Therefore, normality is also known as the equivalent concentration of a solution. The unit of normality is calculated as eq/L or meq/L, and is usually symbolized by “N”.
For calculations on a smaller scale, the unit meq/L is used, and it stands for “milliequivalent.” Normality is generally used to describe the concentration of hydroxyl ion (OH ^{–} ) and the concentration of hydronium ion (H _{3} O ^{+} ), which are present in an acid-base reaction.
The equation for normality is Normality = number of molar equivalents / 1 L of solution. The example of normality is when 1 M H _{2} SO _{4} contains a molarity of 2 N because there are usually 2 moles of H + ions present in a solution per liter. But when sulfuric acid is used in a precipitation reaction where the sulfide as a reactant is precipitated using the sulfuric acid, and then the normality of sulfuric acid becomes 1N because a sulfate ion of sulfuric acid is released from the reaction.
Key differences
- The number of moles of a compound that are present in a liter solution is known as molarity, while the amount of solution present in grams corresponding to a solute that is weight in a liter solution is known as normality.
- The molarity unit is mol/L; on the other hand, the unit of normality is eq/L or meq/L.
- “Molarity = moles of solute / liters of solution” is the molarity formula for the calculation; on the other hand, “normality = number of molar equivalents / 1 L of the solution” is the formula to calculate normality.
- The dependence of molarity, which exists in a solution, is not based on the form of reaction that the solute undergoes; rather, confidence in the normality of a solution is based on the type of reaction that the solute undergoes.
- Due to the change in temperature, the molarity of a solution also changes with increasing volume; on the other hand, temperature change cannot affect the normality of a solution.
- The molarity of a solution is usually influenced by the volume, temperature, solubility of a solute, and the addition of more solutes into the solution; on the other hand, the normality of a solution is generally influenced by the reactive species that are usually present in that normality solution.
- Molarity is symbolized by “M”, while normality is usually symbolized by “N”.
- The 1 M solution of H _{2} SO _{4} usually contains 1 mol of H _{2} SO _{4} per liter of solution is the example of molarity; in contrast, 1 M H _{2} SO _{4} contains a molarity of 2 N because 2 moles of H + ions are usually present in a solution per liter is the example of normality.
- By N = M * n, the molarity can be changed to normal where ‘n’ is taken to be the number of counterparts present in a 1 liter solution.
Final Thought
The above discussion concludes that the values of molarity and normality are different from each other, since molarity is used to calculate temperature change, while normality is generally used more often for titration calculations. Molarity is the number of moles that are present in a mixture of compounds while normality is the number of grams equal to a compound that is present in a mixture of compounds.