Difference between Mitosis and Binary Fission

Main difference

The main difference between the processes of cell division, mitosis and binary fission, is that mitosis occurs between eukaryotes and binary fission occurs between prokaryotes.

Mitosis versus binary fission

Mitosis is different from binary fission because the cell division that occurs in the mitosis process forms spindle fibers (mitotic apparatus) and sister chromatids. In binary fission, these mitotic apparatuses do not form. In mitosis, DNA replication is complete before cell division. In mitosis, replication and separation occur at the same time. Mitosis is a high-fidelity replication. Binary fission is not completely reliable. There is an equal distribution of several chromosomes in mitosis. In binary fission, there is sometimes an uneven distribution of chromosomes. In mitosis, DNA attaches to the spindle for division; in binary fission, DNA attaches to the membrane before division. Mitosis divides cells that have a nucleus. Binary fission divides cells that lack a nucleus. Mitosis errors can cause serious problems, for example cancer. Errors in binary fission are one way of introducing genetic diversity. The mitosis process is corrected by metaphase checkpoints to maintain a uniform number of chromosomes. Due to the lower reliability of binary fission, there are a greater number of chromosomes in a single cell. During mitosis, organelles duplicate at the interface to separate into two cells. However, prokaryotes do not have organelles through ribosomes and other cellular components duplicate prior to binary fission. Mitosis occurs in humans, plants, and fungi. Binary fission takes place in amoeba, hydra, and planarian. The replication and separation of DNA during mitosis occurs during different phases, the S phase is the phase in which the DNA is copied and during the M phase the separation of DNA occurs. In binary fission, these processes take place at the same time.

Comparative chart
Mitosis Binary fission
Complex process Simple process
Previous function
Reproduction, repair and growth. Reproduction
It allows
Vegetative division Division of a single organism into two
They occur mainly in cells of
Multicellular organisms Unicellular organisms
Duration
Take some time Fast process

What is mitosis?

Mitosis is a cell division that usually occurs in eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotic animals (eg, human cells) the nucleus is enclosed in a membrane. During cell division, a single cell replicates to produce a pair of daughter nuclei and moves toward the poles of the cells. It is done thanks to the cytoplasm and finally the cells divide into two daughter cells. These two cells are identical and have approximately the same number of organelles and cytoplasm. The mitotic phase is also called the M phase of the cell cycle. Different types of mitoses can be identified between organisms. During mitosis, the nuclear envelope breaks down and separates the chromosomes; This is known as “open mitosis.” But in the case of intact separate fungal chromosomes with a nucleus, This is known as “closed mitosis.” The division of mitosis can be divided into four main stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. In the S phase of the interface, the chromosome replicates before entering the M phase. For the cell, cleavage proteins are required that are synthesized during the interface. During the interface, cellulose components and organelles are duplicated. In prophase, the chromosomes replicate, the nucleolus and the nuclear membrane disintegrate. The fibers organize themselves to form a structure called the “mitotic spindle,” and the microtubules help align the chromosomes in the metaphase spindle fibers. In anaphase, the spindle draws two sets of chromosomes that are separated from each other. In telophase, these spindles and chromosomes are a movement from opposite sides of the cell. The cell membrane separates the material into two daughter cells. The cells are then added to the non-dividing cell cycle, that is, to the interface. In the S phase of the interface, the chromosome replicates before entering the M phase. For the cell, cleavage proteins are required that are synthesized during the interface. During the interface, the cellulose components and organelles are duplicated. In prophase, the chromosomes replicate, the nucleolus and the nuclear membrane disintegrate. The fibers arrange themselves to form a structure called the “mitotic spindle,” and the microtubules help align the chromosomes in the metaphase spindle fibers. In anaphase, the spindle draws two sets of chromosomes that are separated from each other. In telophase, these spindles and chromosomes are a movement from opposite sides of the cell. The cell membrane separates the material into two daughter cells. The cells are then added to the non-dividing cell cycle, that is, to the interface. In the S phase of the interface, the chromosome replicates before entering the M phase. For the cell, cleavage proteins are required that are synthesized during the interface. During the interface, the cellulose components and organelles are duplicated. In prophase, the chromosomes replicate, the nucleolus and the nuclear membrane disintegrate. The fibers organize themselves to form a structure called the “mitotic spindle,” and the microtubules help align the chromosomes in the metaphase spindle fibers. In anaphase, the spindle draws two sets of chromosomes that are separated from each other. In telophase, these spindles and chromosomes are a movement from opposite sides of the cell. The cell membrane separates the material into two daughter cells. The cells are then added to the non-dividing cell cycle, that is, to the interface.

What is binary fission?

Binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction that uses bacteria, archaea, and other prokaryotic organisms. In binary fission, the cell divides into two daughter cells and repeats the process. Binary fission is a propagation method used primarily by bacteria. The division of a single organism into two daughter organisms is known as “binary fission.” Prokaryotic organisms reproduce by asexual reproduction primarily by binary fission, just as some prokaryotic organelles such as mitochondria also exhibit the process of binary fission to increase in number within the cell. Prokaryotic organisms have only one circular chromosome in their genome. DNA replicates before cell division. When the stem cell separates, the DNA chromosomes have also separated, which results in the production of two genetically identical daughter cells that also have the potential to grow in original size and for further replication. While some eukaryotes like algae and sporozoans divide with the help of multiple fission, a process in which multiple copies are made at once. Other eukaryotes such as paramecium and amoebae propagate by binary fission. While binary fission generally occurs in prokaryotes, it is not exactly true. The bacterial cell does not have a nucleus, although its genetic material is found in a special region of the cell known as the “nucleoid.” At the origin of replication, the chromosome begins to copy itself and moves in both directions and forms two replication sites. As replication proceeds, Chromosomes separate and separate, and can be divided through the longitudinal and transverse axis. After completing replication, the cell divides and pinches itself into two daughter cells.

Key differences

  1. Mitosis occurs mainly in plants and animals, conversely, binary fission occurs in bacteria.
  2. In mitosis, errors occur but rarely, while in binary fission errors occur frequently.
  3. Mitosis process corrected by metaphase checkpoints; on the other hand, binary fission is a reliable process.
Final Thought

Mitosis and binary fission are the main forms of cell division that are different from each other.

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