Difference between mitochondrion and chloroplast

Main difference

The main difference between mitochondria and chloroplast is that mitochondria are the organelle responsible for energy metabolism and cellular respiration, while chloroplast is responsible for photosynthesis …

Mitochondria versus chloroplast

The cell is known as the structural and functional unit of life. In addition, it is made up of different types and numbers of organelles depending on the type of cell. The mitochondria and the chloroplast are also two organelles of the cell. Mitochondria are present in all eukaryotic cells, while the chloroplast is present only in the cells of autotrophic or photosynthetic organisms, eg plants, etc. that produce their food through photosynthesis. They both have their own DNA but variation in function. Mitochondria are involved in cellular respiration and energy metabolism, while the chloroplast participates in photosynthesis.

Comparative chart

Mitochondria Chloroplast
The energy house of the cell that participates in cellular respiration is known as mitochondria. The organelle of the cell that participates in photosynthesis is known as the chloroplast.
Presence
Mitochondria are present in all eukaryotic cells. Chloroplast is present in plant and algal cells, etc. that participate in photosynthesis.
Colour
Mitochondria are usually colorless. The chloroplast is usually green in color.
Shape
Mitochondria are shaped like beans. The chloroplast is disc-shaped.
Structure
Mitochondria are a delimited double membrane structure. The chloroplast is also a delimited double membrane structure.
Membrane pleats
There are folds in the inner membrane of the mitochondria that form ridges. The folds in the inner membrane of the chloroplast form stromuli.
Compartments
It has two compartments, that is, the ridges and the matrix. It also has two compartments known as thylakoids and stroma.
Pigments
There are no pigments in the mitochondria. Photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoids etc. are present in the chloroplast.
Function
It turns sugar into chemical energy in the form of ATP to provide energy for the cell. It stores solar energy in glucose bonds through photosynthesis.
Oxygen
Mitochondria consume oxygen. The chloroplast releases oxygen.
Carbon dioxide
In the mitochondria, sugar breaks down and carbon dioxide is released. In the chloroplast, carbon dioxide is used to make sugar.
Site for
It is the site of photorespiration, oxidative phosphorylation and beta-oxidation, etc. It is the site for photosynthesis and photorespiration.
Self replication
Mitochondria are a self-replicating organelle. It is also a self-replicating organelle.
Definition of mitochondria

The word mitochondrion derives from the Greek word where ” myths ” means “thread” and ” chondrion” for, “Granulated” or “grain-like”. It is also known as the “powerhouse of the cell.” It is a bean-shaped organelle whose diameter varies between 0.75-3 μm but varies in size. It occupies approximately 25% of the cell volume. The total number of mitochondria present in a cell varies depending on the requirements of the cell. It can be from a few to thousands. It is a double membrane structure and its membranes are made up of lipids and proteins. Its inner membrane folds to form ridges to increase the surface area of ​​the mitochondria, and the inner chamber is known as the matrix. It is like a bacterial cell. It has its own circular DNA, ribosomes, and tRNA. Mitochondria consume oxygen and break down organic food and produce carbon dioxide and water, that is, cellular respiration. It converts sugar (glucose) into chemical energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) which is used by other organelles in the cell to perform different functions. It also aids in cell signaling, cell growth, cell death, cell cycle regulation, and cell differentiation.

Definition of chloroplast

The chloroplast is also a double membrane bounded structure present in green algae and plants. It is disc-shaped and its size is around 10 um and 0.5-2 um thick. It also has two chambers, that is, thylakoid and stroma surrounded by envelope or membranes. Thylakoids are flattened vesicles that are arranged in the form of a pile known as a granum. Approximately 40 thylakoids stack to form a granum. In the thylakoid layers, the chlorophyll molecules or pigments are arranged so that the granum appears green. All granums are interconnected by a non-intergranum green part. While the stroma is the fluid that surrounds thylakoids, it contains ribosomes, some proteins, and a small circular DNA. Carbon dioxide binds in the stroma while;

Key differences

  1. The powerhouse of the cell that participates in cellular respiration is known as the mitochondria, while the organelle of the cell that participates in photosynthesis is known as the chloroplast.
  2. Mitochondria are present in all aerobic eukaryotic cells, while chloroplast is not present in all eukaryotic cells, it is present in plant and algal cells etc. which are involved in photosynthesis.
  3. The mitochondria are usually colorless, while the chloroplast is usually green.
  4. The mitochondria are bean-shaped, but the chloroplast is disc-shaped.
  5. There are folds in the inner membrane of the mitochondria that form ridges, while the folds in the inner membrane of the chloroplast form stromuli.
  6. Mitochondria have two compartments, e.g. Eg ridges and matrix, while chloroplast compartments are thylakoids and stroma.
  7. There are no pigments in the mitochondria, while pigments such as chlorophyll and carotenoids etc. are present in the chloroplast.
  8. The mitochondria consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide during their operation, that is, aerobic respiration, while the chloroplast releases oxygen and uses carbon dioxide during their operation, that is, photosynthesis.
  9. Mitochondria convert sugar into chemical energy in the form of ATP to provide energy for the cell, but the chloroplast stores solar energy in glucose bonds through photosynthesis.
  10. The mitochondria are a site for many reactions like photorespiration, oxidative phosphorylation and beta-oxidation, etc., while the chloroplast is the site for photosynthesis and photorespiration.
Final Thought

From the above discussion, it is concluded that mitochondria are a self-replicating organelle, bounded by a double membrane, present in all eukaryotic organisms that show aerobic respiration. It consumes oxygen and produces ATP by breaking down food or sugar. While, the chloroplast is also a self-replicating organelle, delimited by a double membrane, which is present in autotrophs such as plants and algae, etc., which produce their food through photosynthesis. It captures solar energy to produce food through photosynthesis and produce ATP in this process that is used by the cell.

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