Biology

Difference between mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA

Main Difference

To compare these two types of DNA, we must first understand what a DNA is. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, a very complex molecule that has all the information to build and maintain a living being or an organism. Every organism has DNA. It is basically the hereditary material in all organisms that is inherited from the parents of that organism. Almost all cells in a human body have the same DNA. Most of the DNA is found in the cell nucleus, which is called nuclear DNA, but a small amount of DNA is also found in the mitochondria, which is called mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA is found in every cell in a person’s body. A nucleus contains 46 chromosomes that are inherited by both the mother and the father. Secondly, Mitochondrial DNA is found only in the cell’s mitochondria and consists of a single chromosome that is only inherited from the mother. Nuclear DNA chromosomes are longer compared to mitochondrial DNA chromosomes, which are shorter. Nuclear DNA has most of the genetic information that a person’s body needs, while mitochondrial DNA contains only the information necessary for mitochondria to function and also relies on nuclear DNA for some help. The shape of nuclear DNA is linear, while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double-stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while the metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA chromosomes are longer compared to mitochondrial DNA chromosomes, which are shorter. Nuclear DNA has most of the genetic information a person’s body needs, while mitochondrial DNA contains only the information necessary for mitochondria to function and also relies on nuclear DNA for some help. The shape of nuclear DNA is linear, while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double-stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while the metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA chromosomes are longer compared to mitochondrial DNA chromosomes, which are shorter. Nuclear DNA has most of the genetic information a person’s body needs, while mitochondrial DNA contains only the information necessary for mitochondria to function and also relies on nuclear DNA for some help. The shape of nuclear DNA is linear, while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double-stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while the metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA has most of the genetic information that a person’s body needs, while mitochondrial DNA contains only the information necessary for mitochondria to function and also relies on nuclear DNA for some help. The shape of nuclear DNA is linear, while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA has most of the genetic information that a person’s body needs, while DNA Mitochondrial contains only the information necessary for mitochondria to function and also relies on nuclear DNA for some help. The shape of nuclear DNA is linear, while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA has most of the genetic information that a person’s body needs, while DNA Mitochondrial contains only the information necessary for mitochondria to function and also relies on nuclear DNA for some help. The shape of nuclear DNA is linear, while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA has most of the genetic information that a person’s body needs, while DNA Mitochondrial contains only the information necessary for mitochondria to function and also relies on nuclear DNA for some help. The shape of nuclear DNA is linear, while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA has most of the genetic information that a person’s body needs, while mitochondrial DNA contains only the information necessary for mitochondria to function and also relies on nuclear DNA for some help. The shape of nuclear DNA is linear, while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA has most of the genetic information a person’s body needs, while mitochondrial DNA contains only the information necessary for mitochondria to function and also relies on nuclear DNA for some help. The shape of nuclear DNA is linear, while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA. while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape. Both DNAs are double stranded. The basic genetic perspective of a human being is carried out by nuclear DNA, while metabolic activities are carried out by mitochondrial DNA.

Comparative chart
Mitochondrial DNA Nuclear DNA
Location Mitochondrial DNA is found only in the cell’s mitochondria. Nuclear DNA is found within the nucleus of the cell.
Shape Circular Linear
Size More short More
Genes 37 genes 20,000 to 25,000 genes

Definition of nuclear DNA

Nuclear DNA is found in the nucleus of our cells and constitutes 99.9% of the total DNA in our body. These DNAs are associated with the hereditary function of our body. They are linear in shape. Inside cells, nuclear DNA is made up of tiny structures called chromosomes. Humans have forty-six chromosomes in a cell that are arranged in pairs. These chromosomes are inherited from both the mother and the father, twenty-three of these come from your mother and twenty-three from your father. These chromosomes contain between 20,000 and 25,000 genes. Nuclear DNA and all the genes it contains are responsible for the structure, construction and characteristics of a particular human being, as well as responsible for the nature and traits of that person. Different people have different characteristics and characteristics that are inherited by parents. Hence, it also leads to inheriting any genetic disorders or diseases from the parents, if they have any. Nuclear DNA is composed of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, which are the main nucleotides, and consists of a double helix strand that separates during the division of various enzymes.

Definition of mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA is a special circular type of DNA that is only found within the mitochondria and makes up only 0.1% of the total DNA in our bodies. Mitochondrial DNA contains only thirty-seven genes, all of which are important for normal mitochondrial function, of which thirteen of these genes provide instructions for making enzymes, while the remaining genes provide instructions for making molecules that help bind proteins. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from your mother because the father’s mitochondrial DNA is destroyed during fertilization. Mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape and has only one chromosome. Humans contain hundreds to thousands of copies of mitochondrial DNA per cell.

Differences in a nutshell
  1. Nuclear DNA is found within the nucleus of the cell, whereas mitochondrial DNA is found only in the mitochondria of the cell.
  2. Nuclear DNA is linear in shape, while mitochondrial DNA is circular in shape.
  3. Nuclear DNA is longer compared to mitochondrial DNA, which is shorter.
  4. Nuclear DNA is inherited from both mother and father, while, on the other hand, mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from mother.
  5. Nuclear DNA consists of forty-six chromosomes, while mitochondrial DNA consists of only one chromosome.
  6. Nuclear DNA contains between 20,000 and 25,000 genes, while mitochondrial DNA contains only thirty-seven genes.
  7. The chromosomes in nuclear DNA are responsible for the genetic makeup of a human, while the mitochondrial DNA chromosome is responsible for metabolic activities.

Final Thought

Science and biology can be subjects that become difficult for people who do not know much about them. When people who are studying it get confused by the same kinds of terms, it can be very irritating. This article has laid out the main differences between the two types of DNA so that people understand them better.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Check Also
Close
Back to top button