Difference between messenger RNA and transfer RNA

Main difference

RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. It is one of the types of nucleic acid found in cells. RNA has three other types, messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Here we are dealing with messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the type of RNA that contains genetic information in the form of codons that are transcribed from DNA in the nucleus and carry this information to the ribosome. Whereas, transfer RNA (tRNA) is the type of RNA that transfers amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis. Structurally, messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) are quite different. Messenger RNA (mRNA) are single strands of DNA sequence and store genetic codes in it,

Comparative chart

Messenger RNA RNA transfer
Location Messenger RNA (mRNA) is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is found only in the cytoplasm of the cell, not in the nucleus.
Function Messenger RNA (mRNA) contains genetic information in the form of codons that are transcribed from DNA in the nucleus and carry this information to the ribosome. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the type of RNA that transfers amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
Terrible Messenger RNA (mRNA) is inactivated and decomposed after translation. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is not inactivated or destroyed; it is reused in the next process.
Structure Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the single strands of DNA sequence and stores genetic codes in them. Transfer RNA (tRNA) has a complex and looped structure.
What is messenger RNA?

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the first type of RNA found in the cell, 5% of the total RNA in the cell is messenger RNA (mRNA). It is found in the nucleus of the cell. Here it obtains all the genetic information from the DNA by transcription and then it is transferred to the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, messenger RNA (mRNA) moves to the ribosome where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) binds. Ribosomal RNA acts as a factory for protein synthesis. The amino acids necessary for protein synthesis are provided by transfer RNA (tRNA). The proteins are then synthesized according to information from the messenger RNA (mRNA). Structurally, messenger RNA (mRNA) is the single strands of DNA sequence and stores genetic codes in them. Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the gene in the form of DNA base triplets, after the process of protein synthesis (translation), the messenger RNA (mRNA) is inactivated and broken down. In the post-transcriptional changes messenger, the RNA (mRNA) is capped with guanosine triphosphate nucleotide at its 5 ‘end and, likewise, multiple adenylate residues are added at the 3’ end of the messenger RNA (mRNA).

What is transfer RNA?

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the third and smallest type of RNA found in the cell. Its structure is a bit complex compared to messenger RNA (mRNA), it contains 75-95 nucleotides. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is 15% of the total RNA in cells. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is that type of RNA that transfers amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis. It is found only in the cytoplasm of the cell, not in the nucleus. It carries amino acids with it and transports them through the cytoplasm to ribosomal RNA (rRNA) present on ribosomes. These amino acids are specific since they are also used for the synthesis of specific proteins. Transfer RNA (tRNA) also serves as a link between the coding sequences of messenger RNA (mRNA) and amino acids. Each transfer RNA (tRNA) binds to and carries a specific amino acid. After protein synthesis (translation),

Messenger RNA vs. Transfer RNA
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the first type of RNA found in the cell, 5% of the total RNA in the cell is messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) is the third and smallest type of RNA found in the cell. 15% of total RNA in cells.
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is found in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm of the cell, while transfer RNA (tRNA) is found only in the cytoplasm of the cell, not in the nucleus.
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) contains genetic information in the form of codons that are transcribed from DNA in the nucleus and carry this information to the ribosome. Whereas, transfer RNA (tRNA) is the type of RNA that transfers amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is inactivated and decomposed after translation, while transfer RNA (tRNA) is not deactivated or destroyed, it is reused in the next process.
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is single strands of DNA sequence and stores genetic codes in it, while transfer RNA (tRNA) has a complex and looped structure.

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