Biology

Difference between lysogenic phase and lytic phase

Main difference

The lysogenic phase and the lytic phase are related to the virus. The virus is an infectious agent that generally consists of a nucleic acid and a protein coat, and has the ability to multiply when in a living organism or host. The virus can be seen with a light microscope. These phases are the reproduction phases of the virus. The lysogenic phase is one of the reproduction cycles of the virus. In this cycle, the viral nucleic acid is incorporated into the host genome, helping it to multiply and reproduce easily; the viral genome is passed on to the new daughter cells. In this way, the viral genome grows in the host organism and affects it. Viral DNA fuses with the host cell’s DNA, but does not destroy the host cell. Considering that, in the lithic cycle,

Comparative chart

Lysogenic phase Lithic phase
Breeding cycle The lysogenic phase is usually the first reproductive cycle of viruses. The lytic phase is the main reproduction cycle of viruses.
Death of the host cell In lysogenic phase, host cell death does not occur In the lytic phase, the host cell is destroyed.
Viral infection In the lysogenic phase, symptoms of viral infection are not observed. In the lytic phase, a virtual viral infection occurs.
Progeny In the lysogenic phase, the virus does not produce progeny. In the lytic phase, the virus produces offspring.
What is the lysogenic phase?

The lysogenic phase or cycle is a viral reproduction cycle. In this cycle, the viral nucleic acid is incorporated into the host genome. The viral genome that enters the host genome is known as the prophage. This helps it to multiply and reproduce easily; the viral genome is passed on to the new daughter cells. In this way, the viral genome grows in the host organism and affects it. Viral DNA fuses with host cell DNA, but does not destroy the host cell. In this phase, the virus does not produce any offspring and there are no symptoms of viral infection within the host’s body, but they appear after the viral infection has ended. In this type of reproduction, the viral genome (DNA or RNA) remains permanently in the cell.

What is the lytic phase?

The lytic phase or cycle is the main cycle of viral reproduction. In this cycle, the viral genome enters the host cell, there it is transcribed into host cell mRNA. Now, after translation and other processes, the viral genome takes over the host cell’s DNA and its functions. The viral genome multiplies and destroys the host cell’s DNA, and eventually the entire cell dies (lysis). The virus uses the cellular energy of the host cell to carry out its functions. The virus produces progeny and they replicate at a very high rate. When the host cell is full of virus, it is exploded by some of the enzymes released by the virus to break down the cell wall or membrane. Symptoms of viral infection are clearly seen in the host’s body.

Lysogenic phase vs. lytic phase
  • The lysogenic phase is usually the first reproduction cycle of viruses, but the lytic phase is the main reproduction cycle of viruses. Many viruses reproduce first through the lysogenic phase, but soon move to the lytic phase.
  • In the lysogenic phase there is no death of the host cell, while in the lytic phase the host cell is destroyed.
  • In the lysogenic phase, the symptoms of viral infection are not observed while, in the lytic phase, these symptoms can be clearly seen.
  • In the lysogenic phase, the virus does not produce progeny, while in the lytic phase the virus produces progeny.
  • In the lysogenic phase, warm viral replication takes place while, in the lytic phase, a virtual viral infection takes place.
  • In the lysogenic phase, the cellular machinery of the host cell is little affected while, in the lytic phase, the cellular machinery of the host cell takes over completely.

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