Biology

Difference between Introns and Exons

Main difference

The main difference between introns and exons is that introns are the genetic codes that remain within the nucleus to keep DNA safe in genes, while exons are the genetic codes that can exit the nucleus to complete the translation process to synthesize. proteins.

Introns vs. exons

Introns are always within the nucleus; on the other hand, exons are found both inside and outside the nucleus. Introns are the parts of DNA that do not participate in amino acid sequencing in the coding region; on the other hand, exons are the part of the DNA that is included in the amino acid sequencing in the coding region. Introns are related to the noncoding area of ​​DNA; on the opposite side, the extrons are associated with the coding part of the DNA. Introns are known as the bases between two exons; on the other hand, exons are known as the bases that encode amino acid sequencing in proteins.

Introns are present only in eukaryotes; on the opposite side, exons are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Introns always remain within the nucleus; On the other side of the coin, exons can move from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. There is less conservation of sequence in introns compared to exons; on the other hand, there is a very high sequence conservation in exons compared to introns.

Introns are present only in the primary transcript of DNA and mRNA; on the other hand, exons are present in both RNA and DNA. The function of introns is that it is related to the substantial fraction of DNA; on the other hand, the purpose of exons is to be involved in protein translation.

Comparative chart
Introns Exons
Introns are the parts of DNA that do not participate in amino acid sequencing in the coding region. Exons are the part of DNA that is included in the amino acid sequencing in the coding region.
DNA coding
It is related to non-coding DNA. It is connected to the coding of DNA.
Transcription
It is considered as bases between two exons. Exons are the bases that encode an amino acid sequence of the protein.
Presence
It is found only in eukaryotes. It is found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Sequence conservation
Its sequence is less conserved Its sequences are highly conserved
Presence in the genome
It is found in the primary transcript of DNA and RNA. It is found in both DNA and RNA.
Features
It is considered as the substantial fraction of DNA. It is used in the translation of amino acids into proteins.

What are introns?

Introns are the parts of DNA that do not participate in the coding process for amino acid sequences in the coding region. It is the nucleotide sequence that includes the interruption of gene sequencing. The word is the Greek word for “within the core.” It indicates that introns always function within the nucleus and cannot be transported outside the nucleus where they are not functional. It is always present only within the nucleus of eukaryotes.

Its function is not fully understood, but it is considered a substantial part of DNA. Its main purpose is to maintain the DNA genome that is present within the nucleus. It is only the bases that are present between the exons. In genomes, it is present as the primary transcript of DNA and mRNA. Conservation of the amino acid sequence is much lower in introns.

Introns are the genetic codes involved in the transcription and translation processes for protein synthesis. Introns are very common in higher vertebrates such as mice and humans, but less common in other varieties of microorganisms. Introns are the types of bases that are present between exons in DNA genomes.

What are exons?

Exons are the parts of DNA that participate in the coding process for amino acid sequences in the coding region. It is the nucleotide sequence that is included in the translation process. The word exon means outside the nucleus. It implies that exons are not only functional within the nucleus, but also outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm; therefore it can be transported outside the core. It can also be found both inside and outside the core.

Its main function is to initiate or complete the translation process for protein synthesis. It also involves the protection of DNA outside the nucleus. It is related to the coding region of DNA. Causes the coding of the amino acid sequence. It is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It is found in both DNA and mRNA.

Key differences

  1. Introns are related to the noncoding region of DNA; on the other hand, exons are associated with the coding part of DNA.
  2. Introns are the parts of DNA that do not participate in the coding process of amino acid sequences in the coding region; on the other hand, exons are the parts of DNA that participate in the coding process of amino acid sequences in the coding region.
  3. In the transcription process, introns are bases present between two exons; on the opposite side, the exons are the bases that involve amino acid sequencing in the coding region.
  4. Introns are always present within the nucleus; On the other side of the coin, exons are also present within the nucleus and can be transported out into the cytoplasm and participate in the translation process.
  5. Introns include very low sequence conservation; on the other hand, exons include very high sequence conservation.
  6. The function of introns is considered to be a substantial part of DNA; on the other hand, the purpose of exons is the translation of DNA into proteins.
  7. Introns are present mainly in the primary transcript of DNA and mRNA; on the other hand, exons are mainly present in both mRNA and DNA.
  8. Introns are present only in eukaryotes; On the other side of the coin, exons are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that both introns and exons are genetic codes. Introns are always within the nucleus, while exons can be transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

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