Difference Between Ideal Solution and Non-Ideal Solution

Main difference

The main difference between ideal solution and non-ideal solution is that ideal solution contains the same intermolecular connections between all molecules while non-ideal solution contains different molecular connections between solute and solvent molecules.

Ideal solution versus non-ideal solution

The same connection is present between all component molecules in an ideal solution, whereas solute-solute, solvent-solute, and solvent-solvent relationships are present in non-ideal solutions.

Ideal solutions generally always obey Raoult’s law in every manifold of absorptions; conversely, nonideal solutions do not usually obey Raoult’s law. When the solution dissolves in an ideal solution, heat is neither absorbed nor given off; on the other hand, heat is absorbed or evolved in non-ideal solutions.

Several examples of the ideal solution are bromoethane and chloroethane, benzene and toluene, n-hexane and n-heptane, chlorobenzene and bromobenzene, CCl 4 and SiCl 4 , n-butyl chloride and n-butyl bromide, ethyl bromide and iodide of ethyl. Some examples of non-ideal solutions are methyl alcohol and water, acetone and ethanol, acetone and carbon disulfide, chloroform and benzene, nitric acid and water, hydrochloric acid and water.

Comparison chart

ideal solution non-ideal solution
A solution where the contact between all molecules in all solutions is the same is an ideal solution. A solution that has a difference in the interrelationship between all the molecules of different components is a non-ideal solution.
Types of interactions
The same connection is present between all the component molecules. Solute-solute, solvent-solute, and solvent-solvent relationships are present.
enthalpy
The procedure is zero or almost zero, then an enthalpy change occurs. The procedure is positive or negative, then an enthalpy change occurs.
real solutions
very dilute solutions highly concentrated solutions
Obey Raoult’s law
Follow Raoult’s law Don’t follow Raoult’s law.
heat exchange
Heat is neither absorbed nor developed Heat is absorbed or generated
examples
Bromoethane and chloroethane, benzene and toluene, n-hexane and n-heptane, chlorobenzene and bromobenzene, CCl 4 and SiCl 4 , n-butyl chloride and n-butyl bromide, ethyl bromide and ethyl iodide Methyl alcohol and water, acetone and ethanol, acetone and carbon disulfide, chloroform and benzene, nitric acid and water, hydrochloric acid and water

What is the ideal solution?

Ideal solutions generally always obey Raoult’s law at every absorption range and at all temperatures and at every concentration. The ideal solution is the solution in which the contact between all the molecules of all the solutions is the same is an ideal solution. The ideal solution can be obtained by mixing two ideal solutions, which are solvent and solute present in comparable molecular structure and size.

In an ideal solution, there is usually no net force between the molecular components of the solutions. So the relative distance that is present between the solute molecules does not change even after mixing of the solvent. Because in order to change the distance between the molecules in the solution, there must be a net force acting on the molecules.

When an ideal solution procedure is zero or nearly zero, an enthalpy change occurs, meaning that the enthalpy change is zero. When the solution dissolves in an ideal solution, heat is neither absorbed nor given off. Ideal solutions are considered to exist today; for example, the interrelationship between benzene-toluene, benzene-benzene, and toluene-toluene is approximately the same.

examples

Several examples of the ideal solution are bromoethane and chloroethane, benzene and toluene, n-hexane and n-heptane, chlorobenzene and bromobenzene.

What is the non-ideal solution?

Nonideal solutions generally do not obey Raoult’s law at every absorption range and at all temperatures and concentrations. Nonideal solutions are called nonideal because they diverge from ideal solutions.

It is a solution that has a difference in the interrelation between all the molecules of different components. Solute-solute, solvent-solute, and solvent-solvent relationships are present in nonideal solutions. Solutions that are chemically highly concentrated can act as nonideal solutions because concentrated solutions generally exhibit nonideal solution behavior.

When a nonideal solution procedure is positive or negative, a change in enthalpy occurs. Heat is absorbed or developed in non-ideal solutions. Two types of non-ideal solutions are found as positive deviation from Raoult’s law and negative deviation from Raoult’s law.

examples

Some examples of the non-ideal solution are methyl alcohol and water, acetone and ethanol, acetone and carbon disulfide, chloroform and benzene, nitric acid and water.

Key differences

  1. In an ideal solution, equal association between all molecules is present, whereas in non-ideal solutions, solute-solute, solvent-solute, and solvent-solvent relationship is present.
  2. Enthalpy change occurs when an ideal solution process is zero or nearly zero, while enthalpy change occurs when a non-ideal solution process is positive or negative.
  3. Highly diluted solutions could work as ideal solutions; on the other hand, highly concentrated solutions could act as non-ideal solutions.
  4. Ideal solutions normally follow Raoult’s law continuously; conversely, nonideal solutions generally do not follow Raoult’s law.
  5. Heat is neither absorbed nor developed in an ideal solution; on the other hand, heat is absorbed or evolved in non-ideal solutions.
  6. Bromoethane and chloroethane, benzene and toluene, n-hexane and n-heptane, chlorobenzene and bromobenzene, CCl 4 and SiCl 4 , ethyl bromide and ethyl iodide are several examples of the ideal solution; on the other hand, methyl alcohol and water, acetone and ethanol, acetone and carbon disulfide, chloroform and benzene, nitric acid and water, hydrochloric acid and water are some examples of non-ideal solution.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that the ideal solution generally always obeys Raoult’s law and contains the same intermolecular connections between all molecules, while the non-ideal solution generally does not obey Raoult’s law and contains different molecular connections between solute molecules. and solvent.

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