Biology

Difference between humoral immunity and cellular immunity

Main difference

The main difference between humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity is that humoral immunity forms antigen-specific antibodies, whereas cell-mediated immunity does not produce any antibodies.

Humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity

Humoral immunity is considered part of adaptive immunity in which B cells release antibodies, which flow into the body’s blood as a soluble protein. On the other hand, cell-mediated immunity is considered the second part of adaptive immunity, which is facilitated by antigen-specific stimulated T cells. Humoral immunity is specifically intervened by B cells; on the contrary, cell-mediated immunity is precisely intervened by T cells.

Some cells, such as B cells, T cells, and macrophages, primarily mediated humoral immunity, while on the other hand, some cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, T helper cells, macrophages, and neutral killer cells, they generally mediated cell-mediated immunity. immunity. Humoral immunity generally acts on microbes outside cells and their toxins; at the same time, cell-mediated immunity acts on germs that are present inside cells, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and tumor cells.

Humoral immunity consists of BCR receptors; on the other hand, cell-mediated immunity consists of TCR receptors. Accessory receptors present in humoral immunity are the CD40, Fc, Igα, CD21 and Igβ receptors; in contrast, accessory receptors present in cell-mediated immunity are the integrins CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD28.

Humoral immunity recognized natural antigens, while at the same time, in cell-mediated immunity, MHC complexes presented and processed antigens. In humoral immunity, plasma B cells release the antibodies; conversely, in cell-mediated immunity, T cells release cytokines.

Comparative chart

Humoral immunity Cell-mediated immunity
Humoral immunity is known as the type of immunity mediated by macromolecules present in extracellular body fluids. Cell-mediated immunity is known as the other type of immunity, which identifies and relatively destroys infected cells present within the body.
Considered as
It is considered as part of adaptive immunity in which B cells release antibodies, which flow in the body’s blood as a soluble protein. He considered the second part of adaptive immunity, which is facilitated by antigen-specific stimulated T cells.
Main cells
He specifically interceded for B cells. He precisely interceded for T cells.
Start
The answer is quick. The answer is a type of delayed hypersensitivity.
Cell types
Some cells, such as B cells, T cells, and macrophages, primarily mediate this immunity. Some cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, T helper cells, macrophages, and neutral killer cells, often mediate this immunity.
Action
It acts on the microbes that are outside the cells and their toxins. It acts on the microbes present inside the cells, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and tumor cells.
Receivers
Consists of BCR receptors Consists of TCR receptors
Accessory surface molecules
Accessory receptors present in humoral immunity are the CD40, Fc, Igα, CD21 and Igβ receptors. Accessory receptors present in cell-mediated immunity are the integrins, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD28.
Role of MHC molecules
He recognized natural antigens. The MHC complexes presented and processed the antigens.
Secretion
Plasma B cells release the antibodies. T cells release cytokines.
Tumor cells and transplants
It usually does not work on transplants and tumor cells. Perform on tumor cells and transplants.
Hypersensitive reactions
Type IV hypersensitivity Medium type I, II and III hypersensitivity
Antigen binding
B cells release antibodies and these antibodies bind to antigens. T cell receptors present on cells bind to T cells, which then bind to antigens.
Immune surveillance
It does not offer immune surveillance. Offers immune surveillance.
Role in organ transplantation and grafting
Perhaps intricate in initial graft rejection due to antibody production. Involved in denial of organ transplants.
Cancer immunity
It does not offer immunity against cancer. Provides immunity against cancer because it can kill cancer and tumor cells.
Evaluation method
The evaluation method is carried out by means of the plasma level of antibodies. The evaluation method is performed by skin tests to detect the growth of a delayed-type hypersensitivity.
What is humoral immunity?

The humoral is known as the type of adaptive immunity that is created through the flow of antibodies. Humoral immunity produces an appropriate immune response to a specific foreign material. Humoral immunity protects the outer area of ​​the cell.

Many pathogens that enter the body multiply in the outer region of the cell. The pathogens that are present inside the cell, move from one cell to another by extracellular area. That is why the outer space of the cell is considered essential to destroy pathogens.

Antibodies are formed in humoral immunity, generally secreted through plasma B cells. B cell initiation often occurs in helper T cells. Humoral immunity antibodies kill pathogens in three different ways.

What is cell-mediated immunity?

Cell-mediated is the second type of immunity mediated by antigen-specific T cells T cells for cell-mediated immunity are formed in the bone marrow and then develop in the thymus. The presence of T cells can be found in the blood and also in the lymphoid tissues after they enter the bloodstream.

Antigens must be present on the outer surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC) accompanied by major histocompatibility complexes (MHC). As soon as the T cells encounter an antigen, they increase and secrete into armed effector cells. Cytotoxic T cells of cell-mediated immunity kill infected cells causing apoptosis. Helper T cells turn on plasma B cells to form antibodies.

The main characteristic feature of cell-mediated immunity is that it kills pathogens that are present within the cell, which includes all viruses, bacteria, pathogens, and microbes.

Key differences

  1. A type of adaptive immunity in which B cells release antibodies and are mediated by macromolecules present in the extracellular fluid is known as humoral immunity. On the other hand, another type of adaptive immunity, which is mediated by a stimulated specific antigen, is known as cell-mediated immunity.
  2. B cells often mediate humoral immunity; conversely, T cells often mediate cell-mediated immunity.
  3. Humoral immunity acts on extracellular microbes and their pollutants; on the other hand, cell-mediated immunity acts on intracellular microbes, eg bacteria, viruses, tumor cells and parasites.
  4. The receptors involved in humoral immunity are the BCR receptors; the receptors that are present in cell-mediated immunity are the TCR receptors.
  5. Cells that mediate humoral immunity are B cells, T cells, and macrophages; in contrast, cells that mediate cell-mediated immunity are cytotoxic T cells, T helper cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells.
  6. The Igβ, Igα, CD40, Fc and CD21 receptors are called accessory receptors of humoral immunity; on the other hand, CD28, CD8, CD2, CD3, CD4, and integrins are called accessory receptors of cell-mediated immunity.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that humoral immunity produces antibodies through plasma T cells and destroys extracellular cells, whereas cell-mediated immunity attacks intracellular pathogens.

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