Biology

Difference between human sperm and egg

Main difference

The main difference between human sperm and ovum is that human sperm is a male gamete that is produced in a man’s testes, while Ovum is the female gamete that is produced in a woman’s ovary.

Human sperm vs. ovum

Gamete formation is the most important process in sexual reproduction. Gametes are haploid cells, that is, they are made up of half the number of chromosomes (23). Two different gametes, that is, male and female, fuse to form the complete set of chromosomes (46) that give rise to a new individual. The process of formation of male and female gametes is known as gametogenesis. Gametogenesis produces male gametes, that is, sperm and female gametes, that is, ovum. The sperm production process is known as spermatogenesis, while the egg is called oogenesis. Sperm are produced in the testes, but the ovum is produced in the ovaries. Sperm are small in size and can move easily,

Comparative chart

Human sperm Ovum
The male gamete, which is a long, mobile, flagellated cell differentiated in different regions, is called the male sperm. The female gamete with rounded spheres and immobile cells that do not differentiate in different regions is known as
Ovum.
Motility
Sperm can move easily. The egg cannot move.
Size
Human sperm is very small in size. The ovum is large.
Mitochondria
In sperm, mitochondria are present in the middle of the cell in a spiral shape and are compactly arranged. In the ovum, mitochondria are scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
Cytoplasm
In human sperm, the cytoplasm is present in a small amount. In the ovum, the cytoplasm is present in great quantity.
Nucleus
In sperm, the nucleus is in a condensed form without nucleoplasm. The ovum contains nucleoplasm which is known as the germ vesicle.
Chromosomes
In human sperm, the nucleus is haploid and contains X or Y chromosomes. In the ovum, the nucleus is haploid but contains only one X chromosome.
Centrioles
Centrioles are present in human sperm. Centrioles are absent in the human ovum.
Training
Sperm are formed in the testes. The ovum forms in the ovaries.
Process
The process of producing sperm is called spermatogenesis. The process of egg formation is known as oogenesis.
Number of sperm
A spermatogonia contains four sperm. An oogonium formed only one ovum.
Regions
Sperm are divided into different regions, that is, head, neck, middle and tail. Ovum is not externally divided into regions.
Outer covering
Sperm are only surrounded by plasma membrane. The ovum is surrounded by the egg envelopes.
Ejaculation
In the male, millions of sperm are released in one ejaculation. The females produced only one egg per month.
Nature of production
Human sperm production is not a cyclical process. Egg production is a cyclical process.
What is human sperm ?

The word “sperm” is derived from the Greek word ” Sperma “»Which means« seed ». Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is produced in the male reproductive organ, that is, the testes. The process in which sperm are produced is known as spermatogenesis. They are known as the smallest and straightest cell in the human anatomy. It is about 60 um long and is a flagellated mobile cell. A sperm is divided into different parts such as the head, neck, long tail and middle part with a small nucleus and little amount of cytoplasm. Mitochondria are present in the middle of the cell in a spiral and compact form. A sperm can be frozen and stored below 60 degrees Celsius in a woman’s uterus. The production of human sperm is a non-cyclical process and they continue to be produced throughout a man’s life.

What is Ovum ?

The ovum is the round-shaped female reproductive cell and is also known as ovum or oocytes. They are produced in the ovaries and the process of their formation is known as oogenesis. They are known as the largest cell in the human anatomy and can be easily seen with the naked eye. They range in size from 0.15 to 0.2 mm and are surrounded by the zona pellicuda, which is a transparent, non-cellular area. They have a large volume of cytoplasm and mitochondria are scattered in it. The egg exists only for 12-24 hours and cannot be preserved. They are not mobile and are produced in a cyclical process. The ovum does not continue to produce throughout the life of the female.

Key differences

  1. The male gamete, which is a long, mobile, flagellated cell differentiated in different regions, is called the male sperm, while the female gamete with rounded spheres and immobile cells that do not differentiate in different regions is called the ovum.
  2. Sperm can move easily; Besides; the egg cannot move.
  3. Human sperm is very small in size, about 60 um long. In contrast, the ovum has a large size of approximately 15-0.2 mm.
  4. In sperm, mitochondria are present in the middle of the cell in a spiral fashion and are compactly arranged on the other side; in the ovum, the mitochondria are scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
  5. In human sperm, the cytoplasm is present in a small amount while, in the ovum, the cytoplasm is present in a large amount.
  6. In sperm, the nucleus is in a condensed form without nucleoplasm, but the ovum contains nucleoplasm which is known as the germ vesicle.
  7. In human sperm, the nucleus is haploid and contains the X or Y chromosome, while in the ovum, the nucleus is haploid but contains only one X chromosome.
  8. Centrioles are present in human sperm on the other side centrioles are absent in human ovum.
  9. Sperm are formed in the testes and the process of their formation is known as spermatogenesis, while the ovum is formed in the ovaries and the process is known as oogenesis.
  10. A sperm contains four sperm, while an oogonium formed only one egg.
  11. Sperm are divided into different regions, that is, head, neck, midpiece and tail, on the contrary, the ovum is not divided externally into regions.
  12. The sperm are surrounded by the plasma membrane only while the egg is also surrounded by the egg shells.
  13. Millions of sperm are released in the male in an ejaculation, while the females produce only one egg per month.
  14. Human sperm production is not a cyclical process, while egg production is a cyclical process.
Final Thought

From the above discussion, it is summarized that sperm is the male reproductive cell that is very small in size and produces in the testes, while the ovum is the female reproductive cell that is very large and produces in the ovaries.

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