With the passing of time, different civilizations have created calendars, which have served to organize the time of different climatic cycles, the movement of the earth and the changes of seasons.
The most popular calendars in human history are the Julian and Gregorian calendars. Both can produce certain doubts about their similarities and differences, therefore, we are going to see each of them below.
The Julian calendar was created by Emperor Julius Caesar in 46 BC It was the calendar that prevailed in Roman history and in much of Europe. Later it was replaced by the Gregorian calendar, while in other Orthodox countries it was maintained until the beginning of the 20th century.
The Julian calendar has 1 year and 365 days divided into 12 months, for which a year of the month of February (leap year) is added to every 4 years. Specifically, the Julian calendar has an average of 365.25 days.
This calendar has a time and a duration of 365.25 days, it was a little longer than the astronomical year and with the passage of time the errors accumulated, for which they made modifications to adapt the civil year to the astronomical year. In this way they were able to adapt the dates with certain events such as the solstices and equinoxes.
This calendar was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in Europe in the year 1582. Through a decree, it managed to replace the Julian calendar that was in force at that time. The Gregorian calendar has three types of years: the common year that has 365 days, the leap year that has 366 days, and the secular year that is a year that closes the century.
A characteristic that determines this calendar is that secular years divisible by 400 are leap years. However, secular years not divisible by 400 do not apply to be considered leap years. These modifications this aims to adapt to the astronomical year.
The Gregorian calendar contains 26 seconds more than the astronomical year. This tells us that there is a difference every 3,323 years. So the secular years 4000, 8000 and 16000 will not be leap years even if they are multiples of 400. The Gregorian calendar in terms of duration in days is 365.
Differences between the Julian calendar and the Gregorian calendar:
|Julian calendar||Gregorian calendar|
|This calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC.||I was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in the year 1582.|
|This year lasts 365.25 days.||This year has the duration of 365.2425.|
|Distinguish between common year and leap year.||It distinguishes the common year, leap year and secular year.|