Biology

Difference between glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

Main difference

The adrenal cortex is one of the main endocrine glands present in the body. It is present in the kidney. This gland secretion includes glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and sex hormones. Glucocorticoids are the group of hormones that have an effect on glucose metabolism through carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, and lipid metabolism. They also have anti-inflammatory action in the body. While mineralocorticoids are the group of hormones that have an effect on minerals, they are also involved in maintaining salts in the body.In addition, glucocorticoids are called life-protective hormone because they help the body tolerate and cope with stress and trauma,

Comparative chart

Base Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids
Source of secretion The source of glucocorticoid secretion is the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. Mineralocorticoids The source of mineralocorticoid secretion is the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland.
Half life The half-life of glucocorticoid hormones is as follows; cortisol 70-90 minutes, corticosterone 50 minutes and cortisone is not yet known. The half-life of mineralocorticoids is 20 minutes.
Daily entry The daily intake of cortisol is 10.0 µg, corticosterone 3.0 µg, and cortisone is still unknown. The daily production of aldosterone is 0.15 µg and 11-deoxycorticosterone is 0.2 µg.
Action Glucocorticoids primarily have an effect on glucose metabolism through carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, and lipid metabolism. Mineralocorticoids have the main action on minerals such as sodium, potassium and hydrogen ions.
What are glucocorticoids?

Glucocorticoids (GC) are the class of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex; These are corticosteroids that belong to the class of steroid hormones. The name of glucocorticoids is given because (glucose + cortex + steroid) are its basic elements. They include; Cortisol, corticosterone, and cortisone. And its source of secretion is the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. These hormones are C21 steroids that have 21 carbon atoms. The half-life of these hormones is cortisol 70 to 90 minutes, corticosterone is 50 minutes, and cortisone is not yet known. The daily intake of cortisol is 10.0 µg, corticosterone is 3.0 µg, and cortisone is still unknown. Glucocorticoids mainly have an effect on glucose metabolism through carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism and lipid metabolism. Therefore, they are called life-protective hormones because they help to cope with stress and trauma in life. Glucocorticoids increase the level of glucose in the blood by two mechanisms: they promote the process of protein degradation in extrahepatic cells and inhibit the uptake of glucose by cells, which is why they also have an anti-insulin effect. They also cause the mobilization and redistribution of fats in the body. Glucocorticoid hypersecretion can lead to obesity. Other effects of glucocorticoids are: they increase water excretion and enhance sodium retention, cause bone resorption (osteoclastic activity) and inhibit bone formation (osteoblastic activity), cause muscle atrophy due to protein catabolism. They also show an essential function on the central nervous system (CNS) by facilitating its normal activity. They also have anti-inflammatory and antiallergic actions. An interesting and specific role of glucocorticoids is observed in blood cells, as they increase the count of red blood cells, platelets and neutrophils, while they decrease the count of eosinophils, basophils and lymphocytes.

What are mineralocorticoids?

Mineralocorticoids are the class of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex; These are corticosteroids that belong to the class of steroid hormones. The name of mineralocorticoids is given because (minerals + steroid) are its basic elements. And the source of mineralocorticoid secretion is the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. These are C21 steroids that have 21 carbon atoms. The half-life of mineralocorticoids is 20 minutes. The daily production of aldosterone is 0.15 µg and that of 11-deoxycorticosterone is 0.2 µg. Mineralocorticoids have the main action on minerals such as sodium, potassium and hydrogen ions. These are also called life-saving hormone as they maintain osmolarity and extracellular fluid volume (ECF), which is a very important factor in life, if there are no mineralocorticoids, this can lead to sudden death in just 3 days-2 weeks. Mineralocorticoids increase sodium reabsorption from the renal tubule, cause increased excretion of potassium through the renal tubule, and secretion of hydrogen ions. So, they affect the extracellular fluid (ECF). If there is a reduction in ECF, they increase sodium reabsorption along with water reabsorption, resulting in an increase in ECF. They also cause an increase in blood pressure. Aldosterone has an effect on the sweat glands and salivary glands, from here it reabsorbs sodium. The same effect is seen in the intestines of a human. they increase sodium reabsorption along with water reabsorption, resulting in increased ECF. They also cause an increase in blood pressure. Aldosterone has an effect on the sweat glands and salivary glands, from here it reabsorbs sodium. The same effect is seen in the intestines of a human being. they increase sodium reabsorption along with water reabsorption, resulting in increased ECF. They also cause an increase in blood pressure. Aldosterone has an effect on the sweat glands and salivary glands, from here it reabsorbs sodium. The same effect is seen in the intestines of a human being. They also cause an increase in blood pressure. Aldosterone has an effect on the sweat glands and salivary glands, from here it reabsorbs sodium. The same effect is seen in the intestines of a human being. They also cause an increase in blood pressure. Aldosterone has an effect on the sweat glands and salivary glands, from here it reabsorbs sodium. The same effect is seen in the intestines of a human being.

Key differences
  1. The source of glucocorticoid secretion is the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, while the source of mineralocorticoid secretion of mineralocorticoids is the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal.
  2. The half-life of these glucocorticoid hormones is as follows; cortisol 70-90 minutes, corticosterone 50 minutes, and cortisone is not yet known, while the half-life of mineralocorticoids is 20 minutes.
  3. The daily intake of cortisol is 10.0 µg, corticosterone is 3.0 µg and cortisone is still unknown, while the daily production of aldosterone is 0.15 µg and that of 11-deoxycorticosterone is 0, 2 µg.
  4. Glucocorticoids mainly have an effect on glucose metabolism through carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism and lipid metabolism, while mineralocorticoids have the main action on minerals such as sodium, potassium and hydrogen ions .
  5. Glucocorticoids are called a life-saving hormone because they help the body tolerate and withstand stress and trauma, while mineralocorticoids are called a life-saving hormone because they maintain the osmolarity and extracellular fluid (ECF) volume that is essential For life, reduced SCD can lead to sudden death.

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