Medicine

Difference Between Glipizide and Metformin

Main difference

The main difference between Glipizide and Metformin is that Glipizide is a hypoglycemic agent and Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent.

Glipizide versus metformin

Glipizide is a sulfonylurea while metformin is a biguanide. Glipizide is used as a hypoglycemic agent, on the other hand, metformin is used as an antihyperglycemic agent. Glipizide is used in type 2 DM, while metformin is used in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Glipizide belongs to pregnancy category C, while metformin belongs to pregnancy category B . Glipizide is available as tablets, while metformin is available as tablets and oral solutions. Glipizide immediate-release tablets are available in strengths of 5 mg, 10 mg, while metformin immediate-release tablets are available in strengths of 500 mg, 800 mg, and 1000 mg. Glipizide extended-release tablets are available in doses of 2.5 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg, while metformin extended-release tablets are available in 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg strengths. Glipizide is not used in polycystic syndrome,

Comparison chart

Glipizide Metformin
Glipizide is a hypoglycemic agent that belongs to the second generation of sulfonylureas. Metformin is biguanide and is an antihyperglycemic agent.
Mechanism of action
Increases the release of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas. Full mechanism not yet known
Drug classification
Sulfonylurea Biguanide
Therapeutic use
hypoglycemic agent Antihyperglycemic agents
Immediate Release Tablets Strength
5mg, 10mg 500mg, 800mg, 1000mg
Strength of Extended Release Tablets
2.5mg, 5mg, 10mg 500mg, 750mg, 1000mg
Maker
Generic Generic
dosage form
tablets Tablets, Solutions
Drug interactions
NSAIDs
Salicylates
diuretics
oral contraceptives
niacin
Isoniazid

What is Glipizide?

Glipizide belongs to the second generation of sulfonylureas, which cause hypoglycemia when they stimulate the release of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas. Glipizide is prescribed to patients with type 2 DM as they increase release from the pancreas. Glipizide acts on the beta cells of the pancreas and in the presence of Glipizide the beta cells of the pancreas increase more insulin in response to glucose, therefore the action of Glipizide on the beta cells of the pancreas must be functional. Glipizide partially blocks beta-cell potassium channels in the pancreas, this leads to cell depolarization and opens voltage-gated calcium channels and enhances beta-cell insulin release. Glipizide is a short-acting drug. Glipizide is not used in type 1 DM. Glipizide increases insulin levels by reducing hepatic insulin clearance. Glipizide is used with a diabetic diet. Glipizide is taken by mouth. Pharmacological effects begin to appear after half an hour of dosing, and pharmacological effects can be seen after one day of dosing. Glipizide has a short half-life. Adverse effects of glipizide are headache, low blood sugar, nausea, and diarrhea. Severe hypoglycemia caused by glipizide can lead to a neurological emergency. Less common side effects are skin rash, body tremors, and sleepiness. The dose of glipizide is adjusted when a diabetic patient also has liver or kidney disease, since glipizide is metabolized by the liver. Glipizide is excreted in the urine both as unchanged drug and as metabolites. Glipizide is not allowed to be used during pregnancy and nursing mothers. Glipizide tablets are available in doses of 2.5 mg to 10 mg.

Example

The most famous brand that contains glipizide is Glucotrol.

What is metformin?

Metformin is the first line treatment for type 2 diabetes. Metformin is a biguanide and is antihyperglycemic. As metformin does not cause the release of insulin from the pancreas, it does not cause hypoglycaemia. Metformin is taken orally. Metformin is especially beneficial for overweight patients. Metformin is also prescribed to patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. The mechanism of action of metformin is not known, but potential mechanisms have been proposed by clinicians. The end result of all the proposed mechanisms is that metformin decreases gluconeogenesis. Metformin also increases insulin sensitivity, which increases the action of insulin on muscle and fat cells. Metformin is available as Metformin HCL, It is completely soluble in water, insoluble in acetone, and slightly soluble in ethanol. Metformin, when taken orally, shows a bioavailability of 50% to 60% and peak plasma concentration is reached in 1 to 3 hours when immediate-release metformin is taken and 4 to 8 hours when immediate-release metformin is taken. prolonged. A negligible amount of metformin is bound to plasma proteins. Metformin shows many side effects such as gastrointestinal irritations, metallic taste, and anorexia. The serious adverse effect of metformin is lactic acidosis. Metformin overdose causes tachycardia, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. There is no known specific antidote for metformin. Metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine. The maximum daily dose is 2.5 g, which is administered in three divided doses with meals. Metformin shows drug interactions with many drugs such as anticholinergics and cimetidine, which is an H2 receptor blocker. Metformin should not be administered to patients with impaired renal or hepatic function. Metformin should also not be administered to patients with heart failure and chronic hypoxic lung disease.

Example

The famous brand that contains metformin is Glucophage.

Key differences

  1. Glipizide is clasified as a sulfonylurea, while metformin is classified as a biguanide.
  2. Glipizide shows its pharmacological actions as a hypoglycemic agent; on the other hand, metformin shows its pharmacological actions as an antihyperglycemic agent.
  3. Glipizide is used to treat type 2 DM, while metformin is used to treat type 2 DM and type 1 DM.
  4. Glipizide on the other hand Metformin
  5. Glipizide is available in solid dosage form while metformin is available in solid and liquid dosage form.
  6. Glipizide is classified as pregnancy category C; on the other hand, metformin is classified as pregnancy category B.
  7. Glipizide does not find its therapeutic use in the treatment of polycystic syndrome, while metformin is a therapeutic fraction to treat polycystic syndrome.
  8. Glipizide increases insulin release, while metformin does not increase insulin release.

Final Thought

The conclusion from the above discussion is that both glipizide and metformin are used in the treatment of type 2 DM, but their mechanism of action is different from each other.

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