Biology

Difference between germ cells and somatic cells

Main difference

The main difference between germ cells and somatic cells is that germ cells create the reproductive cells of a new individual in half the chromosome number of a somatic cell. Somatic cells are a regular type of cell in a living organism that are not reproductive cells (germ cells).

Germ cells vs. somatic cells

Germ cells refer to a living cell that gives rise to the games of an organism, while somatic cells are any biological cell developed in the body of an organism; that is, undifferentiated stem cells or gametocytes in a multicellular organism. Somatic cells are also known as plant cells. In many animals, germ cells start in the primitive streak and migrate to the developing gonads through the intestine of an embryo. In mammals, somatic cells make up all internal organs, bones, skin, connective tissue, and blood.In mammals, germ cells give rise to eggs and sperm that fuse to produce a cell called a zygote during fertilization, which is differentiate in the cells of an embryo. In germ cells, When a mutation occurs, it is transferred to the next generation by sexual generation. Approximately 220 types of somatic cells in the human body are present, and they never transmit to their progeny as they do not participate in sexual reproduction. Germ cells are the only cells that can undergo meiosis and mitosis during sexual reproduction and produce haploid gametes. Somatic cells divide only by mitosis during asexual reproduction that form the building blocks of all other cells in the animal body.

Comparative chart

Germ cells Somatic cells
An embryonic cell with the potential to become a gamete. All cells in a body other than germ cells.
Ploidy
A set of chromosomes. Two sets of chromosomes.
Differentiation
It cannot be differentiated. It can differentiate into various types of cells in the body.
Presence
Present only in the reproductive system. Present in all parts of the body.
Mutation
it has been transferred to the offspring. The offspring are not carried.
Reproduction
mainly sexual reproduction. asexual reproduction.
Figures
Very few in numbers / figures. Present in most body cells.
Examples
Sperm and ovules. Muscle cell, stomach cells, nerve cells

What are germ cells?

Germ cells are a cell that gives rise to gametes and refers to a set of chromosomes in daughter cells and can transfer genetic information to the next generations, as they are the link between generations, as they are sometimes said to be immortal. Germ cells are the only cells in which both meiosis and mitosis occur. The inheritance of germ cells is called the germ line. Germ cell arrangement begins in the epiblast during cleavage in many animals and gastrulation in mammals and birds. Sometimes a mutation occurs, for example, the germ cell tumor is a rare cancer that can affect people of all ages, mainly children, and accounts for 4% of all cancer cases. Germ cells are cells that can reproduce and produce gametes through sexual reproduction in living organisms. The germ cells of a living organism, such as animals, are transferred and travel to the gonads as they come from the intestine of the embryo. Germ cells can explain how we can evolve and are vital in the perception of reproduction in organisms like humans.

Examples

Men’s sperm and women’s eggs.

What are somatic cells?

The regular cell of the body other than sperm and gametes is called somatic cells. Somatic cells divide only by mitosis and contain all cells other than germ cells and form the building blocks of the body. Somatic cells are generally produced by mitosis in asexual reproduction in humans and are diploid, since two sets of homologous chromosomes are present in the nucleus of a human. Some species may consist of polyploid or diploid somatic cells. Somatic polyploid cells are generally present in plants. In humans, continuous mitotic cell divisions occur in the multicellular organism, and the fusion of one sperm cell forms the diploid zygote. The human body contains more than three trillion somatic cells. These somatic cells are distributed in four main types of tissues in the body, known as connective tissue, epithelial tissue, nerve tissue, and muscle tissue. Tissues form organs and organs form organ systems. Mutations occur in somatic cells as they do not play any role in sexual reproduction as they cannot contribute to evolution. Cloning is used to produce the same genetic clones of animals. In the somatic cell, the nucleus is removed from the cell and injected into an egg from another individual of the same species. The animal’s genetic material has been removed prior to injection of the somatic cell into the nucleus. Somatic cells can tell us how we can have bones, organs and tissues, since these types of cells are responsible for the structures of the body. Cloning is used to produce the same genetic clones of animals. In the somatic cell, the nucleus is removed from the cell and injected into an egg from another individual of the same species. The genetic material of the animal has been removed prior to injection of the somatic cell into the nucleus. Somatic cells can tell us how we can have bones, organs and tissues, since these types of cells are responsible for the structures of the body. Cloning is used to produce the same genetic clones of animals. In the somatic cell, the nucleus is removed from the cell and injected into an egg from another individual of the same species. The animal’s genetic material has been removed prior to injection of the somatic cell into the nucleus.

Examples

Present in bones, skin, muscles, and nerve cells.

Key differences

  1. Germ cells refer to embryonic cells with the potential to become gametes, while somatic cells are cells of the body other than germ cells.
  2. Germ cells contain only one set of chromosomes, while the somatic cell has two sets of chromosomes.
  3. The germ cells passed through the intestine of the embryo and then somatic cells, as they can be present in bones, blood, skin, connective tissue and internal organs.
  4. Germ cells develop through meiosis. Rather, somatic cells develop through the process of mitosis and meiosis.
  5. Germ cells cannot differentiate, but somatic cells can.
  6. Germ cells are present only in the reproductive system, on the contrary, somatic cells are present in all parts of the body.
  7. Germ cells present very few, while somatic cells are present in most of the cells of the body.
  8. Germ cells carried the mutation to the next generation, while the mutation in somatic cells cannot be transferred to the next.
  9. Germ cells are present in sperm and ovules, on the other hand, somatic cells are present in muscles, bone tissues, and nerve cells.

Final Thought

From the above discussion, it is concluded that the germ cell is an embryonic cell with the potential to become a gamete and somatic cells are the cells of the body other than germ cells and divide by mitosis. Both cells contribute to the formation of the multicellular organism.

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