Difference between genetic cloning and PCR

Main difference

The main difference between gene cloning and PCR is that gene cloning is a technique whereby the desired DNA or gene can be produced in vivo to form rDNA (recombinant DNA), while PCR is a technique in the that DNA amplification is carried out in vitro by repeated chain cycles. separation and polymerization.

Gene cloning versus PCR

The formation of multiple copies of DNA from a single desired one is known as DNA proliferation or DNA amplification. The following two methods are generally used to amplify DNA, i.e. gene cloning and PCR or polymerase chain reaction. These two are biotech products that play an important role in understanding disease. Using these molecular techniques, a scientist can make more and more copies of the desired DNA. Gene cloning is a technique by which the desired DNA or gene of interest can be obtained in vivo (within an organism) through the formation of rDNA (recombinant DNA, a DNA molecule that carries genetic material from multiple sources) . On the other hand, PCR, which stands for polymerase chain reaction, It is a technique in which DNA is amplified in vitro (in a test tube instead of in a living organism) through repeated cycles of separation and polymerization on support without using rDNA. For gene cloning, a large amount of DNA is required for amplification, that is, at least one microgram, while only one nanogram of DNA is sufficient in PCR for amplification. In addition, bacterial cells, DNA ligase, vector DNA, and restriction enzymes are required for gene cloning. On the other hand, in the PCR technique, a thermostable DNA polymerase, DNA nucleotides and RNA primers are required together with a DNA segment.Gene cloning is a labor-intensive process and has a greater chance of errors, while PCR is not labor intensive and has less chance of errors. A large amount of DNA is required for amplification, that is, at least one microgram, while only one nanogram of DNA is sufficient in PCR for amplification. In addition, bacterial cells, DNA ligase, vector DNA, and restriction enzymes are required for gene cloning. On the other hand, in the PCR technique a thermostable DNA polymerase, DNA nucleotides and RNA primers are required together with a DNA segment.Gene cloning is a labor-intensive process and has a greater chance of errors, while PCR is not labor intensive and has less chance of errors. a large amount of DNA is required for amplification, i.e. at least one microgram, while only one nanogram of DNA is sufficient in PCR for amplification. In addition, bacterial cells, DNA ligase, vector DNA, and restriction enzymes are required for gene cloning. On the other hand, in the PCR technique a thermostable DNA polymerase, DNA nucleotides and RNA primers are required together with a DNA segment.Gene cloning is a labor-intensive process and has a greater chance of errors, while PCR is not labor intensive and has less chance of errors. and the RNA primers together with the DNA segment are required in the PCR technique. Gene cloning is a labor-intensive process with more chance of errors, while PCR is not labor-intensive and has less chance of errors. and the RNA primers together with the DNA segment are required in the PCR technique. Gene cloning is a labor-intensive process with more chance of errors, while PCR is not labor-intensive and has less chance of errors.

Comparative chart
Gene cloning PCR
A DNA amplification technique in which the required DNA can be obtained in vivo by forming rDNA (recombinant DNA) and introducing it into bacteria is known as gene cloning. A DNA amplification technique in which the required DNA can be obtained in vitro by repeated cycles of separation and polymerization is known as PCR or polymerase chain reaction.
History
In the 19th century, Hans Driesch was the first to clone animals. In 1983, Kary Mullis invented the PCR technique.
Use of recombinant DNA
Recombinant DNA is used in gene cloning. There is no need for rDNA in PCR.
Required amount of DNA
For gene cloning, more DNA is required for amplification, that is, at least one microgram. Only one nanogram of DNA is sufficient in PCR for amplification.
Requirements
Bacterial cells, DNA ligase, vector DNA, and restriction enzymes are required for gene cloning. In the PCR technique, a thermostable DNA polymerase, DNA nucleotides and RNA primers are required along with the DNA segment.
Put on screen
In gene cloning, it is necessary to analyze the amplified DNA in the final step to obtain the desired DNA. If the DNA is pure before starting the reaction, no PCR screening is necessary.
Required time
Gene cloning takes 2 to 4 days for an experiment. In PCR, 4 hours is enough for one experiment.
Automation
There is no need for automation. Automation is a must in PCR.
Need for labor
Gene cloning is a very labor-intensive process. PCR is not labor intensive.
Possibility of error
It has more chance of errors. It has less chance of errors.
Applications
DNA that is amplified by gene cloning has limited uses. A PCR amplified DNA can be used for multiple purposes due to the lower possibility of errors.
What is genetic cloning ?

Gene cloning is a process by which we can obtain multiple copies of our required gene or part of the DNA in vivo by forming rDNA (recombinant DNA) .In the 19th century, Hans Driesch was the first to clone animals by dividing the embryo of a sea urchin. To amplify DNA through gene cloning, the organism’s DNA that contains all of the organism’s genes is first isolated. The required gene is then cut into the correct size using restriction enzymes. The same restriction enzymes are used to cut the plasmid or vector DNA (a self-replicating carrier molecule). The required gene or DNA is then mixed with the plasmid. The plasmid and the required DNA are joined together with the help of DNA ligase. This recombinant plasmid is then inserted into the bacteria through a process known as transformation. This bacterium then reproduces over and over again and forms multiple copies of the required DNA along with plasmid replication.

What is PCR ?

PCR stands for ‘polymerase chain reaction‘. It is a cyclical in vitro reaction that is also used to amplify DNA. Kary Mullis was the first to invent the PCR technique in 1983 and was awarded the Noble Award in 1993. PCR requires a thermostable DNA polymerase, for example Taq polymerase, because the temperature keeps changing during this process. Furthermore, RNA primers are also required, designed according to the required segment of DNA and nucleotides of free DNA. In the presence of all these things, the cyclic polymerase reaction is repeated over and over again to form the multiple copies of the required DNA in vitro (in test tubes within the laboratory).

Key differences

  1. A DNA amplification technique in which the required DNA can be obtained in vivo by forming rDNA (recombinant DNA) and introducing it into bacteria is known as gene cloning, while a DNA amplification technique in which the required DNA can be obtain in vitro by repeated cycles. The separation and polymerization of the support is known as PCR or polymerase chain reaction.
  2. In the 1800s, Hans Driesch was the first to clone animals, on the other hand, in 1983, Kary Mullis invented the PCR technique.
  3. Recombinant DNA is used in gene cloning. In contrast, there is no need for rDNA in PCR.
  4. For gene cloning, more amount of DNA is required for amplification, that is, at least one microgram on the other side, only one nanogram of DNA is enough in PCR for amplification.
  5. Bacterial cells, DNA ligase, vector DNA, and restriction enzymes are required for gene cloning. On the other hand, in the PCR technique a thermostable DNA polymerase, DNA nucleotides and RNA primers are required together with a DNA segment.
  6. In gene cloning, the amplified DNA must be analyzed in the final step to obtain the desired DNA, whereas if the DNA is pure before starting a reaction, no analysis is required in PCR.
  7. Gene cloning takes 2-4 days for one experiment; on the other hand, 4 hours are enough for a PCR experiment.
  8. There is no need for automation in gene cloning, whereas automation is a must in PCR.
  9. Gene cloning is a laborious process on the other hand; PCR is not labor intensive.
  10. Gene cloning is more likely to fail; on the other hand, PCR has less chance of errors.
  11. DNA that is amplified by gene cloning has limited uses, while PCR amplified DNA can be used for multiple purposes due to the lower possibility of errors.
Final Thought

The above discussion summarizes that both gene cloning and PCR are important techniques used to amplify DNA. Gene cloning is an in vivo process (it takes place within an organism), which takes time and with more possibilities for error, while PCR is an in vitro process (in the test tube within laboratories), a fast process with less chance of error.

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