Biology

Difference between Euploidy and Aneuploidy

Main difference

The main difference between Euploidy and Aneuploidy is that Euploidy is known as the increase in the number of chromosome sets in the genome, while Aneuploidy is known as the change that occurs in the number of a specific chromosome present in a set …

Euploidy versus aneuploidy

Euploidy is considered as the state consisting of a chromosome number that is a precise multiple of an original chromosome number; On the other hand, aneuploidy is considered as the state in which an individual or some numbers of chromosomes are removed or added from the usual number of chromosomes. Euploidy contains a large mutation in which the total genetic material is raised through sets of chromosomes; in contrast, aneuploidy contains a relatively small mutation in which the total amount of genetic material changes through a change in the number of chromosomes.

The variations that occur in euploidy are tetraploid (4n), triploid (3n) and diploid (2n); on the other hand, the variations that occur in aneuploidy are trisomy, nullisoma, monosomy and tetrasomy. Euploidy rarely occurs in animals, but mostly in plants; at the same time, aneuploidy occurs comparatively in both plants and animals. Euploidy does not occur in humans, while aneuploidy occurs in humans.

The main causes that lead to euploidy are inter-species crosses and complete nondisjunction; on the contrary, the main causes leading to the development of aneuploidy are mitotic nondisjunction, meiotic nondisjunction, and loss of chromosomes. The particular role of euploidy is that it can lead to the production of many new species and organisms; on the other hand, the specific role of aneuploidy is that it leads to disproportion in the number of genetic material. The number of chromosome sets changes in euploidy, while the number of chromosome sets does not change in aneuploidy.

Comparative chart
Euploidy Aneuploidy
The variation of a chromosomal set of an organism or a cell is known as euploidy. The variation occurs in the total number of chromosomes in an organism, or a cell is known as aneuploidy.
Considered as
Considered as the state consisting of a chromosome number that is a precise multiple of an original chromosome number. Considered as the state in which an individual or some chromosome numbers are removed or added from the typical number of chromosomes
Variation type
It contains a significant mutation in which the total genetic material is raised through sets of chromosomes. It contains a relatively small mutation in which the total amount of genetic material changes through the change in the number of chromosomes.
Variations
Tetraploid (4n), triploid (3n) and diploid (2n) Trisomy, nullisome, monosomy, and tetrasomy
Idea
Very rare it occurs in animals, but especially in plants. Comparatively, it takes place in both plants and animals.
Inhumans
It does not occur in humans Occurs in humans
Causes
The main causes leading to euploidy are inter-species crosses and complete nondisjunction. The main causes leading to the development of aneuploidy are mitotic nondisjunction, meiotic nondisjunction, and loss of chromosomes.
Paper
The particular role play is that it can lead to the production of many new species and organisms. The specific role play is that it leads to disproportion in the amount of genetic material.
Number of sets of chromosomes
There is a change in the number of sets of chromosomes. The change in the number of chromosome sets does not occur.

What is euploidy?

Euploidy referred to the condition that contains a chromosomal number that is a multiple of an original set number of chromosomes. It means that the number of chromosome sets changes and increases in euploidy.

‘n’ is defined as the number of somatic chromosomes of a specific organism. The euploidy genome can be classified according to the number of sets of chromosomes, such as diploid, monoploid, and polyploid. The Monoploid (n) generally contains a single set of chromosomes, while the Diploid (n) typically contains binary sets of chromosomes. Polyploids contain three or more than two sets of chromosomes, which can be tetraploid (4n), triploid (3n), pentaploid (5n), hexaploid (6n), etc. The organism that has an odd number of chromosomes is generally known as sterile.

Euploidy occurs mainly in plants. The mechanism that leads directly to euploidy in which the total chromosomes present in a set move only to one daughter cell is called complete nondisjunction. The main mechanism that occurs in euploidy, which is a cross between some distinctive species, is called interspecies crosses.

What is aneuploidy?

Aneuploidy is known as the state in which one or more than one chromosome is removed or added from the original number of chromosomes. Therefore, in aneuploidy, the number of chromosomes may be less or greater compared to the number of wild-type chromosomes.

Many types of aneuploidy are known as monosomy, nullisomy, and trisomy. Nulisomy (2n-2) is the condition in which both chromosomes of homologous pairs are lost, and this condition can become fatal in many organisms. Monosomy (2n-1) is the condition in which the loss of a chromosome of the homologous pair occurs.

The human genome is usually diploid (2n) with two sex chromosomes and 44 autosomes. The example of monosomy is known as Turner syndrome (44 + XO). Trisomy is the condition known as the gain of an extra chromosome (2n + 1). Examples of trisomy are Down syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome (44 + XXY / XYY).

The main causes of aneuploidy are mitotic and meiotic nondisjunction. Failure occurs in homologous chromosomes to shed during anaphase meiosis, resulting in gametes containing more or less chromosomes. The failure of sister chromatids to shed each other during mitosis can also lead to abnormal chromosome numbers in the next daughter cells.

Key differences
  1. The condition of containing the number of chromosomes that are the same multiple of a standard number of chromosomes is called euploidy; on the other hand, the state in which one or more chromosome numbers are removed or added from the original chromosome number is known as aneuploidy.
  2. The reasons that lead to the appearance of euploidy are complete nondisjunction or crosses between species; on the other hand, the main reasons for the appearance of aneuploidy are chromosome loss, meiotic nondisjunction and mitotic nondisjunction.
  3. Euploidy occurs commonly in plants, but rarely occurs in animals; Unlike euploidy, aneuploidy occurs primarily in both plants and animals.
  4. Triploid (3n), diploid (2n) and tetraploid (4n) are some variations that take place mainly in euploidy; conversely, nullisomy, trisomy, monosomy, and tetrasomy are the types of variation that occur in aneuploidy.
  5. Euploidy is known as a considerable change in which the total amount of genetic material grows by means of numbers of chromosome sets, while aneuploidy is relatively known as the small change in which the amount of genetic material changes by means of numbers. chromosomal.
  6. The production of a new type of organisms and species is carried out through the development of euploidy; on the contrary, the appearance of the imbalance in the total number of gene products occurs due to aneuploidy.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that euploidy is the existence of a new number of sets of chromosomes; on the contrary, aneuploidy is the existence of the changing number of chromosomes in the genomic material.

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