Biology

Difference Between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cell

We will start by saying that all living cells are divided into two groups: Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells.

What is a Prokaryotic Cell?

(Greek: pro-Kar-ee-ot-es) refers to a cell nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelle. The vast majority are unicellular, although there is a small group that are multicellular.

What is a Prokaryotic Cell?

These are organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and have a cytoskeleton. The most characteristic structure of the membrane is the nucleus, it is precisely this characteristic that gives them their name. Cells of this type are found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists.

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cell, differences

  1. The nucleus

In eukaryotic cells a nuclear membrane can be visualized, it is inside the nucleus that the chromosomes that carry the DNA information are found. In prokaryotic cells , they do not have a nucleus, this causes the chromosomes to be scattered in the cytoplasm, these are located in a place known as a nucleoid.

  1. cell walls

In prokaryotes a cell wall is seen that has pectidolucans . But in eukaryotes these walls will be seen depending on whether they are animals or plants. Plant eukaryotes have a cell wall made of cellulose, whereas eukaryotes do not have a cell wall.

  1. Diseases

On some occasions prokaryotic cells can produce some type of diseases such as Tuberculosis, but eukaryotic cells will never show this harmful behavior.

  1. membranous cell organelle

They are present in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes.

  1. cell multiplication

Eukaryotic cells use meiosis and mitosis for cell multiplication, while prokaryotes only use bacterial conjugation for the exchange of genetic information.

  1. Presence in the environment

Eukaryotic cells can be seen in plants, fungi, algae, animals, and protozoa, while prokaryotic cells are only located in bacteria.

Comparative table between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells

Property  Prokaryotes (eubacteria and archaea) Eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi, protists)
Size Small Big
nucleus surrounded by membrane No Yes
nucleolus Absent Present
Endoplasmic reticulum Absent Present
Golgi apparatus Absent Present
organelles Absent Present
microtubules Absent Present
microfilaments Absent Present
intermediate filaments Absent Present
Exocytosis and endocytosis Absent Present
cell division mode cell fission mitosis and meiosis
Genetic information Present in an area called Nucleotide. the DNA bound to proteins, histones with which they form chromosomes
RNA processing Small Multiple
*Ribosomes   Small Big

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