Biology

Difference between euchromatin and heterochromatin

Main difference

Euchromatin is the loosely packed DNA found in the inner body of the nucleus and consists of transcriptionally active DNA regions, while heterochromatin is the tightly packed DNA discovered at the periphery of the nucleus and consists of transcriptionally inactive DNA regions in the nucleus. genome.

Comparative chart

Euchromatin Heterochromatin
Shape Unwound form of chromatin Very compact part of the chromosome
Cell type Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells
Location Inner part of the body Peripheral part of the body
Genetic activation Active Inactive
Replication Early replicative Late replicative
Guy Uniform type Constitutive and facultative heterochromatin
Features Genetic transcription and genetic variations Maintenance of structural integrity and regulation of gene expression.

What is euchromatin?

The human body is made up of billions of cells. A typical cell consists of a nucleus and the nucleus has chromatin. According to a biochemical scientist, the operational definition of chromatin is DNA, RNA, and protein extracted from lysed eukaryotic interphase nuclei. The loose form of chromatin is called euchromatin. DNA exists in the form of chromatin after cell division and is loosely packed. The condensation of DNA with histone proteins produces chromatin that exhibits beads in a string-like structure. Euchromatin has transcriptionally active sites on genetic material. Genomic parts that have active genes are loosely packaged and allow transcription of these genes to occur. The chromosomal crossing frequency is higher in euchromatin and allows the chromatin DNA to be genetically active. The euchromatin parts in the genome can be seen under the microscope as loops that appear to have 40 to 100 kb DNA regions. Under microscopic staining, euchromatin shows light colored bands. The diameter of the chromatin fiber is approximately 30 nm in euchromatin. The matrix-associated regions that have AT-rich DNA bind to euchromatin loops in the core matrix. The presence of euchromatin can be seen in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. euchromatin shows light colored bands. The diameter of the chromatin fiber is approximately 30 nm in euchromatin. The matrix-associated regions that have AT-rich DNA bind to euchromatin loops in the core matrix. The presence of euchromatin can be seen in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. euchromatin shows light colored bands. The diameter of the chromatin fiber is approximately 30 nm in euchromatin. The matrix-associated regions that have AT-rich DNA bind to euchromatin loops in the core matrix. The presence of euchromatin can be seen in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

What is heterochromatin?

The compact form of DNA in the nucleus is called heterochromatin. But it is less compact than metaphase DNA. Staining and observation under a light microscope of undivided cells in the nucleus show two distinct regions that depend on the intensity of the staining. The slightly stained region is called euchromatin, while the dark area is known as heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is more compact in such a way that its DNA is inaccessible to the proteins involved in gene expression. Chromosomal crossover is avoided due to the compact nature of heterochromatin. Therefore, it is considered transcriptional and genetically inactive. The functions of heterochromatin are gene expression and protection of chromosomal integrity. These functions are possible due to the dense packaging of DNA. It is inherited when two daughter cells divide from a single parent cell, which means that the newly cloned heterochromatin has the same DNA regions that result in epigenetic inheritance. Expression of transcribable materials can occur due to boundary domains. This can lead to the development of different levels of gene expression. Two types of heterochromatin can be identified in the core matrix. One is known as constitutive heterochromatin while the other is facultative heterochromatin. Constitutive heterochromatin does not consist of genes in the genome, so it can be preserved in its compact structure also during cell interface. It is a permanent structure of the nucleus of the cell. DNA in the telemetric and centromeric regions belongs to the constitutive heterochromatin. Some parts of the chromosomes belong to the constitutive heterochromatin. For example, most parts of the Y chromosome is a case of constitutional heterochromatin. Facultative heterochromatin has inactive genes in the genome, so it is not a permanent feature of the cell nucleus. It can be seen in the nucleus a few times. The inactive genes in this part may be inactive in some cells or for some periods. When these genes are inactive, they produce facultative heterochromatin. Chromatin structures are in the form of beads on a string, 30 nm fiber, active chromosomes at the interface. It can be seen in the nucleus a few times. The inactive genes in this part may be inactive in some cells or for some periods. When those genes are inactive, they produce facultative heterochromatin. Chromatin structures are in the form of beads on a string, 30 nm fiber, active chromosomes at the interface. It can be seen in the nucleus a few times. The inactive genes in this part may be inactive in some cells or for some periods. When those genes are inactive, they produce facultative heterochromatin. Chromatin structures are in the form of beads on a string, 30 nm fiber, active chromosomes at the interface. 30 nm fiber, active chromosomes at the interface. It can be seen in the nucleus a few times. The inactive genes in this part may be inactive in some cells or for some periods. When those genes are inactive, they produce facultative heterochromatin. Chromatin structures are in the form of beads on a string, 30 nm fiber, active chromosomes at the interface. 30 nm fiber, active chromosomes at the interface. It can be seen in the nucleus a few times. The inactive genes in this part may be inactive in some cells or for some periods. When those genes are inactive, they produce facultative heterochromatin. Chromatin structures are in the form of beads on a string, 30 nm fiber, active chromosomes at the interface.

Euchromatin vs. heterochromatin
  • Euchromatin stains slightly while heterochromatin stains dark.
  • Euchromatin has low DNA density while heterochromatin has high density.
  • Euchromatin does not show heteropicnosis while heterochromatin shows heteropicnosis.
  • The DNA of euchromatin is affected by genetic processes and variations in alleles, whereas in heterochromatin, the phenotype of an organism remains unchanged.
  • The euchromatin regions are not sticky while the heterochromatin regions are.
  • The condensation and decondensation of DNA are exchanged during periods of the cell cycle in euchromatin, whereas heterochromatin remains condensed during every period of the cell, except for DNA replication.

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