Biology

Difference between epidemic and pandemic

Main difference

The main difference between epidemic and pandemic is that epidemic is the outbreak of a disease in such a way that a large geographic area is affected, while pandemic is the outbreak of a disease in many countries or around the world.

Epidemic versus pandemic

An epidemic is the appearance of a disease that spreads over a large geographic area. On the other hand, the pandemic is an outbreak of a disease throughout the country or the world. So the disease can be said to be an epidemic when it is found in a specific large geographic area, but it becomes a pandemic when it spreads to different countries or to the entire world. So, we can also say that a pandemic disease is an endemic one at the national level.

In the word ‘epidemic’, the word ‘epi’ means ‘later’, while the word ‘demic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘dêmos’, which means ‘people of a district’. On the other hand, the word “pandemic” is derived from the Greek word “pándēmos”, which means “common or public.” An epidemic problem infects fewer people compared to a pandemic that affects large numbers of people around the world. So a pandemic disease causes more deaths compared to the epidemic.

An epidemic problem may or may not be the result of a new virus or strain. On the other hand, the problem of the pandemic is mainly due to a new virus or strain that was not present in the world for a long time. So it spreads quickly. In addition, the problem of the epidemic causes less social problems and economic losses. On the other hand, pandemic disease causes great economic loss and social disruption.

An epidemic problem occurs frequently, but it is not becoming famous or is not known to many people due to its limited spread in a specific geographic area. On the other hand, a pandemic disease does not occur often and when it does, it becomes famous everywhere due to its worldwide spread. Examples of epidemic diseases are the Spanish flu in 1918, measles from 1981 to 1991, and whooping cough in 2014. On the other hand, examples of pandemic diseases are the 1968 flu, the HIV / AIDS pandemic, the bubonic plague. , and COVID-19.

table Comparison

Epidemic Pandemic
The appearance of a disease that spreads over a large geographical area is known as an epidemic. An outbreak of a disease that spreads throughout the country or the world is known as a pandemic.
Etymology
In this word, ‘epi’ means ‘later’, while the word ‘demic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘dêmos’, which means ‘people of a district’. The word ‘pandemic’ originates from the Greek word ‘pándēmos’, which means ‘common or public’.
Covered area
An epidemic disease covers a large geographic area. A pandemic affects an entire country or the entire world.
Using Word
The word epidemic is used when the disease is found in a specific large geographic area. A disease becomes a pandemic when it spreads to different countries or the whole world through travelers, etc.
Number of infected people
An epidemic problem infects fewer people. A pandemic disease affects large numbers of people around the world.
Number of deaths
This type of disease causes fewer deaths. This disease causes more deaths.
Source
This problem may or may not be the result of a new virus or strain. This problem evolved mainly due to a new strain of the virus that was not present in the world for a long time.
Losses
This problem causes less social problems and economic losses. This problem causes great economic losses and social disruption.
Frequency
An epidemic disease occurs frequently. It doesn’t happen often.
Examples
Their examples are the Spanish flu of 1918, measles from 1981 to 1991, and whooping cough in 2014. Their examples are the 1968 flu, the HIV / AIDS pandemic, the bubonic plague, and COVID-19.
What is the epidemic ?

The epidemic is an outbreak of a disease that spreads over a large geographic area. In this word ‘epidemic’, ‘epi’ means ‘later’, while the word ‘demic’ is derived from a Greek word ‘dêmos’, which means ‘people of a district’. It has many broader meanings, for example, “contagious,” “excessively prevalent,” or “known to very extensive growth or spread.”

So the word epidemic is used when the disease is found in a specific large geographic area. It infects fewer people due to its spread in a limited area and therefore causes fewer deaths. An epidemic disease may or may not be the result of a new virus or strain. It takes place more frequently, but it is not becoming famous or is not known by many people due to its limited diffusion in a specific geographical area.

Examples

  • 1918 Spanish flu
  • Measles from 1981 to 1991
  • Whooping cough in 2014
  • The Zika virus spread in 2016 and 2017 in tropical areas. It causes microcephaly, that is, a congenital defect in pregnant women.
  • Ebola outbreak between 2014 and 2016 in West Africa
  • The severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS virus invaded Asia in 2003, and it also belongs to the coronavirus family of diseases.

What is a pandemic ?

The pandemic is an outbreak of a disease that spreads throughout the country or the world. This word “pandemic” is derived from the Greek word “pándēmos”, which means “common or public.” So the word pandemic is used when the disease spreads to different countries or the whole world through travelers, etc.

A pandemic disease affects large numbers of people around the world. So it causes more deaths. This problem mainly arises from a new virus or strain that was not present in the world for a long time. Therefore, people have less immunity against it. Therefore, it spreads quickly. This problem causes great economic losses and social disruption.

Pandemic attack does not happen often. But whenever it happens, it disturbs a large part of the world and becomes easily familiar. If proclaimed somewhere, it causes all global and national public health agencies to react against the condition at a higher level. For example, the WHO or world health organization has announced a six-phase plan to understand the flu pandemic situation and work accordingly.

Phases of the pandemic

  • Phase 1: period in which no animal virus has been found to spread the infection in humans.
  • Phase 2: This phase is known as the first threat level when a virus is transferred from an animal to a human.
  • Phase 3: a phase in which a small group of people have been affected, but there are no cases due to human transmission.
  • Phase 4: A phase with a community affected due to animal-to-human or human-to-human transmission.
  • Phase 5: The phase in which the outbreak has been transferred to at least two countries due to human transmission.
  • Phase 6: It is the phase in which the disease has spread to another country and is announced as a pandemic.

Examples

  • The 1968 flu
  • The HIV or AIDS pandemic
  • The bubonic plague
  • COVID-19
Key differences
  1. An outbreak of a disease that spreads over a large geographic area is known as an epidemic, while an outbreak of a disease that spreads throughout the country or the world is known as a pandemic.
  2. In the word ‘epidemic’, ‘epi’ means ‘later’, while the word ‘demic’ is derived from a Greek word ‘dêmos’, which means ‘people of a district’. On the other hand, the word “pandemic” is derived from the Greek word “pándēmos”, which means “common or public.”
  3. An epidemic disease covers a large geographic area. In contrast, a pandemic covers an entire country or the entire world.
  4. The word epidemic can be used when the disease is in a specific large geographic area. On the other hand, a disease becomes a pandemic when it spreads to different countries or the whole world through travelers, etc.
  5. An epidemic problem infects fewer people. On the other hand, a pandemic affects large numbers of people around the world.
  6. An epidemic disease causes fewer deaths, while a pandemic disease causes more deaths.
  7. The epidemic problem may or may not be the result of a new virus or strain. On the other hand, the problem of the pandemic is mainly due to a new virus or strain that was not present in the world for a long time.
  8. An epidemic disease causes fewer social problems and economic losses, while the problem of a pandemic causes great economic losses and social disruption.
  9. An epidemic disease occurs frequently, but it is not catching on due to its limited spread. On the other hand, a pandemic disease does not occur often, and when it does, it becomes famous everywhere due to its worldwide spread.
  10. Examples of epidemic disease are measles from 1981 to 1991, Spanish flu from 1918, and whooping cough in 2014. On the other hand, examples of pandemic diseases are the 1968 flu, the HIV / AIDS pandemic, the plague. bubonic. and COVID-19.

Final Thought

The discussion above summarizes that the epidemic is an outbreak of disease in a large geographic area that causes fewer affected people and economic losses. On the other hand, a pandemic attack is an outbreak of a disease in a large number of countries or throughout the world. It infects large numbers of people and causes great economic losses.

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