Medicine

Difference Between Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine

Main difference

The main difference between ephedrine and pseudoephedrine is that ephedrine is a sympathomimetic alkaloid derived from a plant of the ephedra genus, while pseudoephedrine is the isomer of ephedrine with sympathomimetic activity…

Ephedrine versus pseudoephedrine

Ephedrine has direct or indirect sympathomimetic activity at α and β receptors; on the other hand, pseudoephedrine has indirect sympathomimetic activity at α receptors and weak indirect sympathomimetic activity at β receptors. Ephedrine increases the release and activity of norepinephrine at adrenergic receptors, while pseudoephedrine increases the release of endogenous norepinephrine from storage vesicles. Ephedrine is similar in structure to amphetamine and methamphetamines, on the other hand pseudoephedrine is phenethylamine. Ephedrine is used in low doses to treat hypotension while pseudoephedrine is used in higher doses to treat hypotension. Ephedrine has a strong bronchodilator effect compared to pseudoephedrine,

Comparison chart

ephedrine Pseudoephedrine
Ephedrine is a natural sympathomimetic alkaloid. Pseudoephedrine is an isomer of ephedrine with sympathomimetic activity.

Receptors on which the drug acts

The actions of ephedrine are carried out through the alpha and beta receptors. Pseudoephedrine’s actions are primarily through alpha receptors.

Action mode

Ephedrine has both direct and indirect actions on adrenergic receptors. Pseudoephedrine only has indirect actions.

nasal decongestant

Ephedrine is used as a nasal decongestant, but its effectiveness is less compared to pseudoephedrine, Pseudoephedrine is used as a nasal decongestant, but its effectiveness is higher compared to ephedrine.

Use in hypotension

Ephedrine is more effective in treating hypotension. Pseudoephedrine is less effective in treating hypotension.

Effect on the CNS

Ephedrine is a powerful CNS stimulator. Pseudoephedrine has CNS effects.

Available dosage forms

Ephedrine is available in oral, parenteral, and topical dosage forms, but taken orally it is more effective than pseudoephedrine. Pseudoephedrine is available in oral, parenteral, and topical dosage forms.

Contraindications

Angle-closure glaucoma, pheochromocytoma, asymmetric septal hypertrophy Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, severe uncontrolled high blood pressure, severe heart artery disease, enlarged prostate

Adverse effects

Palpitations, headache, tachycardia, vertigo, insomnia Fear, anxiety, loss of appetite, trouble sleeping, nervousness

What is ephedrine?

Ephedrine is classified as a sympathomimetic agent that acts as an agonist at α and β receptors. Ephedrine is also considered a mixed-acting sympathomimetic drug because it increases norepinephrine release from sympathetic neurons. Ephedrine has two asymmetric carbon atoms. Ephedrine lacks a catechol moiety. Ephedrine is effective when administered orally. Ephedrine increases heart rate and cardiac output. Ephedrine increases peripheral resistance but invariably. Ephedrine usually increases blood pressure. When ephedrine stimulates alpha receptors on smooth muscle cells in the bladder, it increases resistance to urine output. When ephedrine stimulates β receptors in the lungs, it causes bronchodilation. Ephedrine stimulates the CNS and is a potent CNS stimulator. When taken orally, the effects of ephedrine last for a long time. Ephedrine is eliminated in the urine and is eliminated as unchanged drug. The half-life of ephedrine is 3 to 6 hours. Ephedrine is used in the treatment of asthma and is used to treat hypotension caused by spinal anesthesia. Adverse effects of ephedrine are hypertension, especially when ephedrine is taken parenterally or when taken in oral doses higher than recommended. CNS side effects include insomnia. The half-life of ephedrine is 3 to 6 hours. Ephedrine is used in the treatment of asthma and is used to treat hypotension caused by spinal anesthesia. Adverse effects of ephedrine are hypertension, especially when ephedrine is taken parenterally or when taken in oral doses higher than recommended. CNS side effects include insomnia. The half-life of ephedrine is 3 to 6 hours. Ephedrine is used in the treatment of asthma and is used to treat hypotension caused by spinal anesthesia. Adverse effects of ephedrine are hypertension, especially when ephedrine is taken parenterally or when taken in oral doses higher than recommended. CNS side effects include insomnia.

Example

Examples of famous brands that contain ephedrine are Bronkaid, Primatene tablets, etc.

What is pseudoephedrine?

Pseudoephedrine is classified as a sympathomimetic agent that acts as an agonist at α receptors. Pseudoephedrine is phenethylamine which is an isomer of ephedrine with sympathomimetic property. Pseudoephedrine has two asymmetric carbon atoms. Pseudoephedrine displaces norepinephrine from its storage sites, and the released norepinephrine acts as an alpha agonist. Pseudoephedrine has weak agonist activity at beta-adrenergic receptors. Pseudoephedrine has fewer effects on the central nervous system. Receptor stimulation causes vasoconstriction and leads to decreased nasal and sinus congestion. Pseudoephedrine is used as a nasal decongestant associated with cold and allergies. Pseudoephedrine is used as a wakefulness-promoting agent. Pseudoephedrine also has antitussive pharmacological action. Pseudoephedrine is also used in the manufacture of amphetamines. Pseudoephedrine shows anxiety, nervousness, dizziness, and excitability as side effects.

Example

Common brands that contain pseudoephedrine are Actifed, Allegra, Aleve.

Key differences

  1. Ephedrine is a direct and indirect acting adrenergic drug while pseudoephedrine is an indirect acting adrenergic drug.
  2. Ephedrine is an alpha and beta adrenergic agonist, on the other hand; Pseudoephedrine is primarily an alpha-adrenergic agonist.
  3. Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine, on the other hand pseudoephedrine is an isomer of ephedrine.
  4. The main therapeutic use of ephedrine is to raise blood pressure in hypotensive patients, while the main therapeutic use of pseudoephedrine is in decongesting the respiratory system.

Final Thought

The conclusion from the above discussion is that ephedrine is the prototype mixed action sympathomimetic drug and pseudoephedrine, which is an isomer of ephedrine, shows approximately all the pharmacological actions of ephedrine and the difference lies only in the efficacy of these actions. pharmacological.

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