Biology

Difference between Endospora and Exospora

Main difference

The main difference between Endospore and Exospore is that Endospore is formed in the mother cell wall and is released into the environment when the cell breaks down, while Exospore is formed through cell division and separates from the stem cell through the formation of the septum.

Endospore vs. exospore

An endospore is considered as a structure produced by the bacterium that consists of DNA and a small amount of cytoplasm to survive in unfavorable conditions; on the other hand, Exospore is considered as an asexual spore that detaches itself from the stem cell by forming a septum. Bacteria are responsible for producing endospores, while fungi and algae produce exospores.

Endospores generally form within the stem cell; in contrast, exospores generally form near the termination of a stem cell. Cell division does not occur in the formation of endospores; conversely, exospores are formed through the process of cell division. The structure of the endospore is resistant, inactive and non-reproductive, which is sometimes covered by a thin layer known as an exosporium. On the contrary, the structure of the exospore contains a unique form of spores, which is a medium for the multiplication of bacteria and fungi, and does not consist of a special covering.

Through the rupture of the parental cell, the endospores are released into the environment; on the other hand, exospores are generally released through budding. An organism can form only one endospore, but on the contrary, an organism can produce several exospores.

Endospores can be made up of bacterial genera such as Clostridium, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus; on the other hand, the exospores are formed by Chamaesiphon, conidiospores, Actinomyces, Stichosiphon, Streptomyces, Actinobacteria. Endospores are generally produced by the bacteria Clostridium Bacillus and Sporosarcina, while in comparison, exospores are generally produced by some members of the phylum Actinobacteria.

Comparative chart
Endospore Exospore
A hard, inactive form made up of many bacteria that allows them to survive in unfavorable conditions such as disinfectants, intense heat, and UV radiation is known as an endospore. The structure that forms out of the somatic cell through budding at the end point of the stem cell is known as the exospore. It is also known as other resistant bacteria.
Considered as
A structure produced by the bacterium that consists of DNA and a small amount of cytoplasm to survive in unfavorable conditions. An asexual spore that is shed from the stem cell by forming a septum.
Formed by
Bacteria are responsible for producing endospores. Fungi and algae produce exospores.
Training
Typically formed within the stem cell Usually forms near the termination of a stem cell
Cellular division
Cell division does not occur Formed by the process of cell division
Structure
The structure is tough, dormant, and non-reproductive, sometimes covered in a thin layer known as an exosporium. The structure contains a particular form of spores that is a medium for the multiplication of bacteria and fungi, and does not consist of a special coating.
Spore release
Through the rupture of the parental cell, the spores are released into the environment. It is normally released through budding.
Of an organism
An organism can form only one endospore An organism can produce several exospores.
Produced by
Generally produced by the bacteria Clostridium Bacillus and Sporosarcina Generally produced by some members of the phylum Actinobacteria.
Examples
It can be formed by bacterial genera such as Bacillus, Clostridium and Paenibacillus Formed by the conidiospores, Chamaesiphon, Stichosiphon, Actinomyces, Streptomyces, Actinobacteria, Chamaesiphon

What is endospore?

An endospore is known as a resistant structure that is produced by bacteria to withstand severe and unfavorable conditions that contain DNA and a small portion of the cytoplasm. An endospore is covered by a thin layer of the protective outer covering.

When many environmental conditions become favorable, endospores begin to germinate and form many new organisms. That is why endospores are known as the main type of reproductive cells. Endospores are made up of bacterial genera such as Clostridium, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. These bacterial genera can withstand harsh conditions such as high and low temperatures, UV radiation, dehydration, chemicals.

The endospore contains a cell wall that is made up of dipicolinic acid, which provides heat resistant properties to the endospore. Bacterial endospores can be destroyed by moist heat treatment at 121 ° C for about 15 minutes.

It is given the name “endospore,” which means a spore or seed-like form, but it is not considered a true spore. The endospore is a resistant, inactive and stripped structure from which bacteria can moderate. Endospore formation is usually triggered when there is a lack of nutrients and occurs mainly in gram-positive bacteria.

What is Exospore?

The exospore is known as a more resistant bacterium, which is mainly made up of algae and fungi to multiply under adverse environmental circumstances. Through the process of cell division, exospores are produced at the terminal point of the stem cell.

The exospore can be separated by producing a septum, which occurs between the mother and daughter cells; the exospore is in the shape of a yolk. The yolk can be released from the stem cell for germination when favorable conditions are present. Conidiophores are known as types of fungal spores, which generally form as exospores.

The exospores are produced by algae such as Stichosiphon and Chamaesiphon. Exospores can also be produced by bacteria such as Actinomyces, Streptomyces, and Actinobacteria. Cyanobacteria, such as Chamaesiphon, also result in the formation of exospores. The exospore is the permanent structure of unique types of bacteria.

Exospores do not have a protective spore shell covering. Due to the almost completely adjusted metabolism of exospores and their low water content, exospores are considered more resistant to intense heat, dehydration, chemical stress and radiation compared to the vegetative cell. The producer of exospores is, for example, methane, which is normally used by the bacterial genus Methylosinus.

Key differences

  1. A tough structure that is produced by bacteria to live in critical conditions, that has DNA and a small volume of cytoplasm is called an endospore. In contrast, an asexual spore, which is typically used for the multiplication of algae and fungi and which is separated from the stem cell by forming a septum, is called an Exospore.
  2. Endospores can be produced mainly by bacteria; on the other hand, exospores can be produced mainly by fungi and algae.
  3. Endospores are produced in the stem cell, while exospores are formed at the end of the stem cell.
  4. Endospores are not formed by cell division, but in comparison, exospore formation occurs through cell division.
  5. An endospore is made up of an organism, while many exospores are made up of an organism.
  6. Endospores can be released by breaking the parent cell, while exospores can be released through the budding process.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that Endospore and Exospore are two types of spores. Still, they are different from each other as the endospore is produced mainly by bacteria and within the stem cell. The exospore is made up of algae, fungi, bacteria, and cyanobacteria and is produced at the end of the stem cell.

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