Biology

Difference between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase

Main difference

The main difference between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase is that DNA polymerase always participates in the DNA replication process, while RNA polymerase always participates in the transcription process …

DNA polymerase vs. RNA polymerase

DNA polymerase is the enzyme involved in making a double-stranded DNA molecule, while RNA polymerase is the enzyme involved in making a single-stranded RNA molecule. DNA polymerase enzyme involved in the DNA replication process while the RNA polymerase enzyme participates in the transcription process. The DNA polymerase enzyme always needs DNA nucleotides to produce the new DNA nucleotides; on the other hand, the RNA polymerase enzyme always needs RNA nucleotides to produce the new RNA nucleotides.

The enzyme DNA polymerase is mainly needed in the S phase; On the other hand, the enzyme RNA polymerase is mainly needed in the G1 and G2 phases of the growth phase cell cycle. DNA polymerase always acts on the DNA replication fork that is opened with the help of the Helicase enzyme; on the other hand, the RNA polymerase enzyme acts on the trigger sites present in the DNA strands. The DNA polymerase enzyme needs DNA gyrase for its activation, whereas the RNA polymerase always needs the holoenzyme for its activation.

The DNA polymerase enzyme cannot start the process on its own, while the RNA polymerase enzyme can start its process without any help. The DNA polymerase enzyme always needs the primers to start the DNA replication process; on the other hand, the RNA polymerase enzyme does not need the primers to initiate the transcription process. Exonuclease enzyme activities are present in DNA polymerase; on the other hand, exonuclease enzyme activities are not present in RNA polymerase.

The efficiency of DNA polymerase is greater than that of RNA polymerase; on the other hand, the efficiency of RNA polymerase is lower than that of DNA polymerase. The error rate in DNA polymerase is very low; on the other hand, the error rate in RNA polymerase is very high. DNA polymerase is divided into three more types, while RNA polymerase is divided into five more types.

DNA polymerase cannot stop the replication process on its own; on the other hand, RNA polymerase can stop the transcription process. The rate of DNA polymerase is 1000 nucleotides per second in prokaryotes; on the other hand, the rate of RNA polymerase is 40 to 80 nucleotides per second in prokaryotes. DNA polymerase involved in the elongation of DNA molecules; on the other hand, RNA polymerase involved in the elongation of the RNA molecule.

Comparative chart

DNA polymerase RNA polymerase
DNA polymerase is the enzyme involved in the manufacture of a double-stranded DNA molecule. RNA polymerase is the enzyme involved in making the single-stranded RNA molecule.
Applications
In the process of DNA replication In the transcription process
Product
DNA double stranded molecule Single-stranded RNA molecule
Nucleotides
Use DNA nucleotides to make a DNA molecule Use RNA nucleotides to make the RNA molecule.
Behaviour
In phase S1 In phase G1 and G2
Essential enzyme
Gyrase DNA Haloenzyme
Primers
Essential for that Not essential for that
Exonuclease activity
Present in it Absent in it
Elongation
Lengthen whole chromosomes Lengthen all RNA strands
Velocity
The speed of DNA polymerase is 1000 nucleotides per second in prokaryotes. The rate of RNA polymerase is 40 to 80 nucleotides per second in prokaryotes.
Error rate
The error rate in DNA polymerase is very low. The error rate in RNA polymerase is very high.
Efficiency
The efficiency of DNA polymerase is higher The efficiency of RNA polymerase is lower than that of DNA polymerase.
Types
DNA polymerase is divided into three more types RNA polymerase is divided into five more types

What is DNA polymerase?

DNA polymerase is the type of enzyme that is present in the cell of living organisms and that is mainly involved in the production of the double-stranded DNA molecule. It involves the complete lengthening of all chromosomes in the cell during the S phase of cell division. Exonuclease enzyme activity is very prominent in DNA polymerase.

It always adds new nucleotides at the 3 ‘end of the DNA strand. The downstream process of the 3 to 5-way replication process always proceeds. Its main disadvantage is that it always adds new nucleotides only when a part of the RNA strand known as primers is present, which can be subsequently removed with the other DNA polymerase.

The efficiency of DNA polymerase is much greater than that of all the enzymes that are present in organisms. Its speed of work efficiency is higher in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes. You can add DNA nucleotides at a rate of 1000 per second in prokaryotes and 100 per second in eukaryotes.

The other important enzymes that participate in the replication process with the help of DNA polymerase are DNA gyrase and helicase enzymes. The types of DNA polymerase in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are DNA polymerase I, DNA polymerase II, and DNA polymerase III.

What is RNA polymerase?

RNA polymerase is the enzyme present in the cell of living organisms that is mainly involved in the production of the single-stranded RNA molecule. It involves the complete elongation of the entire RNA molecule during the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle in cell division. Exonuclease activity is generally absent in RNA polymerase.

It adds the new nucleotides of RNA molecules that are involved in the transcription process. It also proceeds in the 3-5 direction of the new daughter strand. The efficiency of RNA polymerase is much lower than that of DNA polymerase. The error rate is much higher than that of the other enzyme.

Their speed of competition is 40 to 80 nucleotides of RNA per second in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The haloenzyme present in the process of forming RNA molecules. Only one type of RNA polymerase is present in prokaryotes, while the other three types are present in eukaryotes which are RNA polymerase I, RNA polymerase II, and RNA polymerase III.

Key differences

  1. DNA polymerase is the enzyme that involves the formation of a double-stranded DNA molecule, while RNA polymerase is the enzyme that involves the formation of a single-stranded RNA molecule.
  2. Catalysis of the DNA polymerase enzyme the replication process; on the other hand, the enzyme RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription process.
  3. DNA polymerase enzyme involved in the DNA replication process while the RNA polymerase enzyme participates in the transcription process.
  4. The DNA polymerase enzyme generally requires DNA nucleotides to produce additional new DNA nucleotides; on the other hand, the RNA polymerase enzyme generally requires RNA nucleotides to produce the new additional RNA nucleotides.
  5. The enzyme DNA polymerase performs a function in the S phase; On the other hand, the RNA polymerase enzyme performs important functions in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle.
  6. DNA polymerase is always used in the double-stranded molecule of DNA that is opened with the help of the enzyme Helicase; on the other hand, the RNA polymerase enzyme acts on the trigger sites present in the DNA strands.
  7. The DNA polymerase enzyme requires DNA gyrase for its activation, whereas RNA polymerase always requires the haloenzyme for its activation.
  8. The DNA polymerase enzyme cannot start the process on its own without the help of external agents, while the RNA polymerase enzyme can start its process without the help of external agents.
  9. The DNA polymerase enzyme generally uses ribonucleic acid primers to initiate the DNA replication process; on the other hand, the RNA polymerase enzyme does not use ribonucleic acid primers to initiate the transcription process.
  10. The competition of DNA polymerase is greater than the competition of RNA polymerase; on the other hand, the competition of RNA polymerase is less than the competition of DNA polymerase.
  11. The error rate is generally very low in DNA polymerase; on the other hand, it is generally very high in RNA polymerase.
  12. The division of DNA polymerase is generally divided into three types; On the other hand, RNA polymerase cleavage is generally divided into three types.
  13. DNA polymerase cannot start the replication process without help; on the other hand, RNA polymerase can start the transcription process without any help.
  14. One thousand nucleotides per second is the rate of DNA polymerase in prokaryotes; on the other hand, 40-80 nucleotides per second is the rate of RNA polymerase in prokaryotes.
Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase are the enzymes that are present in the cell during the cell cycle. DNA polymerase is the enzyme that participates in the engineering of the DNA molecule; on the other hand, RNA polymerase is the enzyme that participates in the engineering of an RNA molecule.

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