Difference Between Distillation and Extraction

Main difference

The main difference between distillation and extraction is that distillation purifies the substance that is in a liquid mixture while extraction purifies the substance that is in a liquid or solid phase…

Distillation vs Extraction

Distillation is the method of purifying a liquid through the process of heating and cooling, while extraction is the procedure of extracting something, particularly using force and effort. Distillation practices the difference in a mixture between the boiling points of chemical components, while extraction practices the different solubilities of some substances in two different phases. As a measure of the split point, distillation uses relative volatility; on the other hand, as a measure of the degree of separation, extraction uses selective solubility. Distillation is done only for liquid phase mixtures; on the contrary, extraction is performed for solid phase mixtures and liquid phase mixtures. The apparatus used in distillation is a distillation apparatus, while the extraction is carried out through a separating funnel. The distillation method is used in the chemical and petroleum industry, in the fractional distillation of crude oil production; Conversely, extraction is used to isolate organic compounds such as aniline, phenol, and nitro aromatic compounds from water and essential oils, flavors, and pharmaceuticals.

Comparison chart

Distillation Extraction
Distillation is the method of purifying a liquid through the process of heating and cooling. Extraction is the procedure of extracting something, particularly using force and effort.
Technique
Practice the difference in a mixture between boiling points of chemical components. Practice the different solubilities of some components in two phases
degrees of separation
Use relative volatility Use selective solubility
stages
Made for liquid phase mixtures only Made for solid phase blends and liquid phase blends
Apparatus
distillation apparatus separatory funnel
Applications
They are used in the chemical and oil industry, in the fractional distillation of crude oil production. They are used to isolate organic compounds such as aniline, phenol, and nitrated aromatic compounds from water and essential oils, flavors, and pharmaceuticals.
What is distillation?

Distillation is the method of purifying a liquid through the process of heating and cooling. This method practices the difference in a mixture between the boiling points of the chemical components. In a gas mixture, gases can also be distilled into a gas mixture by liquefying the gases. This distillation method works best for liquid mixtures that have components that contain significantly different boiling points. Since different substances have different boiling points, when the liquid mixture is heated, different substances present in that mixture transform into different gases at different temperatures. As we cool down in temperature, different components can be collected that condense at different temperatures. The distillation procedure is continued by heating the liquid mixture, and then the evaporated substance passes through the plastic tube. At the end of the plastic tube, the condensation is completed by running cold water on the outer walls of the plastic tube. After that, condensation of gases occurs on the wall of the tube, transferring the heat of the gases to the cold water. As a result, the water heats up. The substance that then condenses is collected at the end of the tube. The distillation method is used in the chemical and petroleum industry, in the fractional distillation of crude oil production. The substance that then condenses is collected at the end of the tube. The distillation method is used in the chemical and petroleum industry, in the fractional distillation of crude oil production. The substance that then condenses is collected at the end of the tube. The distillation method is used in the chemical and petroleum industry, in the fractional distillation of crude oil production.

Types
  • Simple distillation: used to distinguish two liquid substances that have a significant difference in their boiling points.
  • Fractional distillation: used to separate hydrocarbon fractions in crude oil.
  • Steam distillation: used to isolate heat sensitive substances.
  • Vacuum distillation: It is used to separate substances that have very high boiling points.

What is extraction?

Extraction is the procedure of extracting something, particularly using force and effort. Extraction is performed for solid phase separation and liquid-liquid separation. The concept used in this extraction is the distribution of a material in two different phases. The extraction is carried out using the “separatory funnel” apparatus. In the liquid-liquid extraction method, two phases are used, such as an aqueous solvent and an organic solvent. First, the aqueous liquid mixture to be separated is added. The extraction apparatus The separatory funnel is then filled with an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The funnel is then gently shaken several times and then left to stand for a few minutes with the funnel lid open. Then gather the two layers in two different containers. The separation must be performed several times to obtain accurate results. At the end of the procedure, the required substance is found in the organic phase. We can then evaporate or use another technique to obtain the pure substance of this organic phase. Extraction is used to isolate organic compounds such as aniline, phenol, and nitro aromatic compounds from water and from essential oils, flavors, and pharmaceuticals.

Types

  • Solid-liquid extraction: It consists of extracting a substance from a solid using a solvent.
  • Liquid-liquid extraction: It consists of separating a substance from a liquid by means of a solvent.
Key differences
  1. Distillation is the method of purifying a liquid through the process of heating and cooling, while extraction is the procedure of extracting something, particularly using force and effort.
  2. Distillation practices the difference in a mixture between the boiling points of chemical components, while extraction practices the different solubilities of some substances in two different phases.
  3. As a measure of the split point, distillation uses relative volatility; on the other hand, as a measure of the degree of separation, extraction uses selective solubility.
  4. Distillation is done only for liquid phase mixtures; on the contrary, the extraction is carried out for solid phase mixtures and liquid phase mixtures.
  5. The apparatus used in the distillation is a distillation apparatus, while the extraction is done using a separatory funnel.
  6. The distillation method is used in the chemical and petroleum industry, in the fractional distillation of crude oil production; Conversely, extraction is used to isolate organic compounds such as aniline, phenol, and nitrated aromatic compounds from water and essential oils and pharmaceuticals.

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