Biology

Difference Between Diploid and Haploid Cells

There are two types of cells in the body, haploid cells and diploid cells. The big difference is related to the number of chromosomes that each cell has and in diploid cells it has two chromosomes (2n), haploid cells contain one chromosome (1n).

haploid and diploid cells

In people autosomal or somatic cells are diploid and possessing two sets of chromosomes (2n). These cells are found in skin, blood, and muscle cells. The number of chromosomes (n) differs in different organisms and in humans, the complete set (2n) comprises 46 chromosomes.

Haploid cells are found in gametes or germ cells and possess only one set of chromosomes (n). An example of haploid cells are the cells found in the sperm and in the egg.

cell division and reproduction

meiosis

Animal cells have a fixed number of chromosomes in body cells, existing in homologous pairs (2n). Each pair of chromosomes consists of one chromosome from the mother and the second from the father.

In the evolution of meiosis (cell division for sexual reproduction), diploid cells (2n) separate to produce haploid cells that have only one set of chromosomes (n).

When the male and female gametes fuse at fertilization and the formation of the zygote, the number of chromosomes is restored back to 2n. In this way, diploid cells contain a complete set of chromosomes and haploid cells are those with half the number of chromosomes in the nucleus (n).

This phase does not occur in organisms that reproduce through asexual processes such as bacteria. In plant cells, the (n), or haploid, stage forms a large part of their life cycle.

Mitosis

Cell growth is the effect of mitosis, a stage in which the mother cell separates to give rise to identical haploid daughter cells, these have the same number of chromosomes.

This stage differs slightly in different types of cells, in the case of animals, the effect it causes on them is that they undergo (open) mitosis, with the rupture of the nuclear membrane, and organisms such as fungi and yeasts support closed mitosis keeping its nuclear membrane intact.

Summary

  1. A haploid cell has only one set of chromosomes (n), and diploid cells have two sets of chromosomes (2n).
  2. In humans, somatic cells are diploid and in gametes they are haploid.
  3. Diploid cells evolve as a result of mitotic cell separation and haploid cells develop as a result of meiotic cell division.
  4. Mitosis gives 2 identical daughter cells and both mother and daughter cells are diploid. In meiosis, a diploid cell separates twice to produce 4 haploid daughter cells.
  5. Human beings and most animals are known as diploid organisms, algae and fungi are examples of organisms that are haploid for much of their lives, male bees, wasps and ants are also haploid .

Diploid and Haploid cells

diploid cells haploid cells
Definition It has two complete sets of chromosomes (2n). They have half the number of chromosomes (n), that is, they have only one complete set of chromosomes.
Cellular division They reproduce by mitosis, generating daughter cells that are exact replicas. Haploid cells is the effect of the process of meiosis, a type of cell division in which diploid cells separate to give rise to haploid germ cells.
Organisms Humans and most animals are known as diploid organisms. Algae and fungi are examples of organisms that are haploid for most of their life. The male bee, wasps, and ants are also haploid.
example of cells Diploid cells are found in skin, blood, and muscle cells also known as somatic cells. Haploid cells are used in sexual reproduction in sperm and egg cells also known as gametes.

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