In the plant kingdom there are a large number of species that man has been in charge of studying and understanding how they work, from there a wide variety of classifications have emerged according to the different qualities that plants have. One of these categories in which they are grouped are those related to the internal functioning system, among which we find vascular and non-vascular plants.
What are Vascular Plants?
Vascular plants or also known as cormophytes or higher plants, are those plants of the plant kingdom that have three fundamental parts such as root, stem and leaves and that also have an internal vascular system that distributes water and nutrients throughout the entire plant. plant, so that it can grow according to its particular potentialities. Vascular plants are the most abundant type of plant on the planet.
The root, in addition to holding the plant, manages to absorb nutrients and water from the soil; the stem is the one that provides firmness so that the leaves can grow distributed in branches and separated from each other, giving space for the growth of flowers and fruits, which balance the stability of the trunk, for which many species of vascular plants can reach large heights.
The main characteristic of vascular plants are the conductive vessels that make up the vascular system, which is made up of xylem and phloem. The xylem are the woody vessels that carry nutrients from the root of the plant and along the stem reaching the leaves, flowers and fruits. For its part, the phloem conducts various nutrients through the Liberian vessels, from the leaves to the rest of the plant.
These conductive vessels are the ones that transport a specialized tissue known as sap, which when entering the plant is called crude sap and contains water and minerals that regulate growth. Upon reaching the leaves, this sap is processed and transported through the phloem, providing water, minerals, sugars and dissolved phytoregulators, from where this substance is produced to the root of the plant.
Vascular plants are divided into two types: Pteridophytes , their reproduction occurs through spores. On the other hand, there are the spermatophytes , which in turn is subdivided into gymnosperm (its seed is exposed) and angiosperm (its seed is covered by the flower).
Man gives many uses to vascular plants and it is from them that the fruits are obtained for human consumption, other plants serve as decoration for gardens and as ornaments, and in many cases, the nutrients contained in the sap are used for medicine. thanks to its variety of healing and vitamin properties.
What are Non-Vascular Plants?
If we talk about non-vascular plants, we refer to those that lack internal ducts that transport nutrients throughout the plant, however they have a simple system that delivers the necessary water, but since they do not have xylem or phloem , can not retain water loss.
There is not a great variety of non-vascular plants, but some of those that belong to this category that are terrestrial are moss, liverworts and horn liverworts. On the other hand, among the non-vascular plants that are aquatic we have the algae, comprising each of its species.
Among its main characteristics we have that its size is small and it is possible to find them in varied environments, from areas with a temperate climate to desert areas, in jungles or at sea level. They can be born on rocks or wet logs and cover large areas of soil, however, their height is usually 3 centimeters for terrestrial ones and no more than 20 centimeters for aquatic ones.
Non-vascular plants are cryptogamous, which means that they do not produce flowers or seeds, but rather reproduce through spores.
Difference Between Vascular and Non-Vascular Plants
- Vascular plants have a structure that includes root, stem, leaves; non-vascular plants, on the other hand, usually cover moist surfaces as a layer.
- Non-vascular plants have a simple system that does not allow them to retain liquids inside, while vascular plants have a complex internal system that transports the water and nutrients necessary for the plant to develop.
- Vascular plants can reach a large size, depending on the species. For their part, non-vascular plants tend to be more extensive than tall, since their maximum size is 3 cm for terrestrial plants and 20 cm for aquatic plants.
- The reproduction of non-vascular plants occurs through spores, and vascular plants, there are species that reproduce in the same way, but there are also those that produce the seed for their reproduction.
- Vascular plants produce food for consumption, while non-vascular plants do not produce flowers or fruits during their life cycle.