Difference between solid, liquid and gas

Main difference

The main difference between solid, liquid and gas is that solid is a state of matter with compact particles in a specific shape, while liquid has loose particles without any specific shape, while gas has particles that move freely and covers the shape of the container in which it is attached.

Solid versus liquid versus gas

Everything in this universe that has mass and takes up space is known as matter. In other words, everything around us, such as plants, animals, water, food, vehicles, clothing, etc. it is matter. Matter is made up of tiny particles like atoms, groups of atoms or molecules, and ions, etc. According to the physical characteristics of these tiny particles, matter is divided into three states, that is, solid, liquid and gaseous. If the tiny particles are tightly bound and form a rigid structure with the proper shape, then it will be the solid state of the matter, for example, ice, apple, etc. Liquid is a state of matter that has particles that are loosely bound and do not. It has a specific shape, but it has a specific volume, for example, water, juices, etc.

Comparative chart

Solid Liquid Gas
A state of matter that has tightly bound particles is known as a solid. A state of matter with loosely bound particles is known as a liquid. A state of matter with free-moving particles is known as gas.
Bonding
Solid particles have a strong bond between them. Liquid particles have lost their bond with each other. Gas particles have no bonds between them.
Shape
It has a specific shape. It does not have a specific shape. It does not have a specific shape.
Volume
It has a specific volume. It also has a specific volume. It does not have a specific volume.
Energy
It has the lowest energy. It has a medium energy level. It has the highest energy.
Particle arrangement
It has regular and very orderly particles. It has random and small scattered particles. It has random and more scattered particles.
Compressibility
It is very difficult to compress a solid. The liquid is less difficult to compress. Gas is very easy to compress.
Fluency
It cannot flow. It can flow from a higher level to a lower one. It can flow in all directions.
Particle motion
Its particles have negligible motion. Its particles have more movement than solid particles. Its particles have free and random motion.
Intermolecular space
Has minimal intermolecular spaces It has more intermolecular spaces compared to the solid. Has large intermolecular spaces
Storage
The container is not necessary to store solids. The liquid cannot be stored without a container. Gas needs a closed container for storage.

What is solid?

A solid is a rigid state of matter that retains its density and shape when unconfined. It has a strong attractive force between its molecules. So, it has a small or minimal intermolecular space. The particles stick together tightly and are closed to form a specific shape. Its particles have negligible movement, the solid is very difficult to compress and cannot flow. It has a specific volume and does not require any container to store it. p. ex. banana, table, car, etc.

What is Liquid?

Liquid is a freely moving substance of constant or specific volume. It is that state of matter that has random and loose particles. The liquid has low attractive forces between its molecules. So it has more intermolecular spaces and it doesn’t have any specific shape. It is almost difficult to compress liquid due to the small spaces between molecules, but it can easily flow from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. The container is necessary to store liquid. for example, water, juices, milk, etc.

What is gas?

Gas is a state of matter with random, free-moving particles. The force of attraction between gas particles or molecules is almost negligible. So, they move freely and have very large intercellular spaces between them. That is why it does not have a specific shape and volume. It forms the shape of the container in which it is enclosed. A closed container is required to store gas. It is very easy to compress a gas due to the large spaces between its molecule. Also, it can flow easily due to the weak attractive force between its molecules. for example, methane gas.

Key differences

  1. A rigid state of matter with a maximum force of attraction between its molecules is called solid, while liquid has the medium type of intermolecular attraction, while gas has little or no force of attraction between its molecules.
  2. Solid has a specific shape and volume, while liquid does not have a specific shape, but has a specific volume, and gas does not have a specific shape or volume.
  3. There is very little space between solid particles, while liquid has little space between its particles, while gas particles have a lot of space between them.
  4. Solid is difficult to compress, but liquid is less difficult compared to solid, while gas is very easy to compress.
  5. Solid cannot flow, but liquid can easily flow from higher concentration to lower concentration, and gas can flow in all directions.
  6. Solid does not require any container to be stored while liquid is stored in the container, while gas requires a closed container to be stored.

Final Thought

From the above discussion, it is concluded that solid is a rigid state of matter with specific shape and volume, while liquid is a substance that flows without any specific shape but has a specific volume, while gas has particles that are they move freely without any specific shape and volume.

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