Some positions have been eradicated over time, but others still exist and prevail very latent in today’s society, among which are those such as idealism and materialism, which in many cases are seen as opposites, but which are interesting to know. their approaches to differentiate them in a concrete way.
What is Idealism?
It is a philosophical current that maintains that the ideas and thoughts of the human being are what define reality, that is, for there to be knowledge about the things around us, it is not enough to make contact through the organs of the senses, but requires the intervention of a mental construct about how the object is perceived.
Throughout history, idealism has been embodied in the work of different philosophers, such as Plato, who argued that the intellect and reason are what allow acquiring knowledge of the world outside of being. The current of objective idealism also emerged, which states that ideas arise from experience, so one depends directly on the other; some of the characters who defended this position were Hegel, Dilthey, and Bolzano. Likewise, the German idealism that had among its representatives Hegel, Kant, Schelling and Fichte, who pointed out how the essence of things is subject to the subjective perception of those who study it, for which they suggest making room for reason above of feeling From this last derives one of the most recognized currents and it is the transcendental idealism of the philosopher Kant,
Idealism considers the finite material, while thought is infinite, since there can be endless interpretations given to the same reality according to the perspective of the person who observes it. Therefore knowledge arises from an idea versus experience.
What is Materialism?
Materialism is known as the philosophical thought that maintains that matter occupies a primordial place above consciousness, since matter is objective and exists even though man is unaware of it. Materialism explains that thought arises from matter, because as a consequence of matter, man has thoughts about the world and the need to know about the elements in it.
Among the main representatives of materialism is Marx, Engels with his approaches to dialectical materialism, who maintain that the spirit is not the one that creates but that things already exist and are the ones that illuminate the human being so that he is capable of producing ideas and thoughts that try to explain matter, therefore man is influenced by everything external to him. Clearly this position is shown against all religious belief, because among its postulates is that nature reaches its superior forms and develops from the conditions of the environment, but not by the intervention of supernatural entities.
From this current arises historical materialism, which analyzes the behavior of humanity based on its relationship with matter, from different perspectives such as politics, economics, among others.
Materialism is currently in force in areas of science and knowledge, in view of the intangible nature of spiritual affirmations; In addition, its prevalence is directly related to the advancement of technology and new discoveries in geography and space, so myths are overcome every day and opportunities are opened to discover elements that are there, but that at the moment are not. are within our reach, but with each day that science advances, it brings us closer to the unknown.
Difference Between Idealism and Materialism
- Idealism proposes that consciousness prevails over matter, while materialism holds that matter precedes thought.
- Materialism explains that things exist regardless of whether or not one is aware of them. On the other hand, idealism expresses that the idea about the phenomena is what defines it as such.
- Idealism believes in the presence of a superior being that gave rise to man with his faculties. For materialism, there is no higher being who creates everything, but the conditions were given for the elements to form by themselves.
- Materialism refers to what occupies a place in space (matter); On the other hand, idealism focuses on the ideas that arise from experience.